10 research outputs found

    Molecular Genetics of Metastatic Breast Cancer

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    Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer in women. Breast cancer has a heterogeneous etiology. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to the pathogenesis and progression of breast cancer. Various genes as proliferation and nuclear factors have been identified in breast cancer. Therefore, the genetic component of patients is important in determining disease behavior, response to anticancer therapeutics, and patient survival. Prognosis of breast cancer is associated with potential metastatic properties of primary breast tumors. Metastasis is the leading cause of death in patients with breast cancer. Therefore, it is important to understand the mechanisms underlying the development of distant metastases to specific regions and has clinical value. Metastasis shows an organ-specific spread pattern and occurs with a series of complex and multistep events associated with each other, such as angiogenesis, invasion, migration-motility, extravasation, and proliferation. Breast cancer often metastasizes to the bone, liver, brain, and lungs. Metastasis may develop years after successful primary treatment. The metastatic process will become clear, as information about molecules and genes associated with metastases increases, and this is extremely important for cancer treatment

    Does Hypothyroidism Affect Gastrointestinal Motility?

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    Background. Gastrointestinal motility and serum thyroid hormone levels are closely related. Our aim was to analyze whether there is a disorder in esophagogastric motor functions as a result of hypothyroidism. Materials and Methods. The study group included 30 females (mean age ¬Ī SE 45.17 ¬Ī 2.07 years) with primary hypothyroidism and 10 healthy females (mean age ¬Ī SE 39.40 ¬Ī 3.95 years). All cases underwent esophagogastric endoscopy and scintigraphy. For esophageal scintigraphy, dynamic imaging of esophagus motility protocol, and for gastric emptying scintigraphy, anterior static gastric images were acquired. Results. The mean esophageal transit time (52.56 ¬Ī 4.07‚ÄČsec for patients; 24.30 ¬Ī 5.88‚ÄČsec for controls; P = .02) and gastric emptying time (49.06 ¬Ī 4.29‚ÄČmin for the hypothyroid group; 30.4 ¬Ī 4.74‚ÄČmin for the control group; P = .01) were markedly increased in cases of hypothyroidism. Conclusion. Hypothyroidism prominently reduces esophageal and gastric motor activity and can cause gastrointestinal dysfunction

    A fuzzy approach to multi-objective mixed integer linear programming model for multi-echelon closed-loop supply chain with multi-product multi-time-period

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    By the green point of view, supply chain management (SCM), which contains supplier and location selection, production, distribution, and inventory decisions, is an important subject being examined in recent years by both practitioners and academicians. In this paper, the closed-loop supply chain (CLSC) network that can be mutually agreed by meeting at the level of common satisfaction of conflicting objectives is designed. We construct a multi-objective mixed-integer linear programming (MOMILP) model that allows decision-makers to more effectively manage firms’ closed-loop green supply chain (SC). An ecological perspective is brought by carrying out the recycling, remanufacturing and destruction to SCM in our proposed model. Maximize the rating of the regions in which they are located, minimize total cost and carbon footprint are considered as the objectives of the model. By constructing our model, the focus of customer satisfaction is met, as well as the production, location of facilities and order allocation are decided, and we also carry out the inventory control of warehouses. In our multi-product multi-component multi-time-period model, the solution is obtained with a fuzzy approach by using the min operator of Zimmermann. To illustrate the model, we provide a practical case study, and an optimal result containing a preferable level of satisfaction to the decision-maker is obtained

    A novel iterative method to solve a linear fractional transportation problem

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    The linear fractional transportation problem (LFTP) is widely encountered as a particular type of transportation problem (TP) in real-life. In this paper, a novel algorithm, based on the traditional definition of continuity, is presented to solve the LFTP. An iterative constraint is constructed by combining the objective function of the LFTP and the supply-demand condition since the fractional objective function is continuous at every point of the feasible region. By this constraint obtained, LFTP is converted into an iterative linear programming (LP) problem to reach the optimum solution. In this study, the case of asymptotic solution for LFTP is discussed for the first time in the literature. The numerical examples are performed for the linear and asymptotic cases to illustrate the method, and the approach proposed is compared with the other existing methods to demonstrate the efficiency of the algorithm. Also, an application had environmentalist objective is solved by proposed mathematical method using the software general algebraic modeling system (GAMS) with data set of the real case. Finally, some computational results from tests performed on randomly generated large-scale transportation problems are provided

    Middle-term outcomes in renal transplant recipients with COVID-19: a national, multicenter, controlled study

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    Background In this study, we evaluated 3-month clinical outcomes of kidney transplant recipients (KTR) recovering from COVID-19 and compared them with a control group. Method The primary endpoint was death in the third month. Secondary endpoints were ongoing respiratory symptoms, need for home oxygen therapy, rehospitalization for any reason, lower respiratory tract infection, urinary tract infection, biopsy-proven acute rejection, venous/arterial thromboembolic event, cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection/disease and BK viruria/viremia at 3 months. Results A total of 944 KTR from 29 different centers were included in this study (523 patients in the COVID-19 group; 421 patients in the control group). The mean age was 46 +/- 12 years (interquartile range 37-55) and 532 (56.4%) of them were male. Total number of deaths was 8 [7 (1.3%) in COVID-19 group, 1 (0.2%) in control group; P = 0.082]. The proportion of patients with ongoing respiratory symptoms [43 (8.2%) versus 4 (1.0%); P Conclusion The prevalence of ongoing respiratory symptoms increased in the first 3 months post-COVID in KTRs who have recovered from COVID-19, but mortality was not significantly different

    Global variation in postoperative mortality and complications after cancer surgery: a multicentre, prospective cohort study in 82 countries

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    ¬© 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 licenseBackground: 80% of individuals with cancer will require a surgical procedure, yet little comparative data exist on early outcomes in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). We compared postoperative outcomes in breast, colorectal, and gastric cancer surgery in hospitals worldwide, focusing on the effect of disease stage and complications on postoperative mortality. Methods: This was a multicentre, international prospective cohort study of consecutive adult patients undergoing surgery for primary breast, colorectal, or gastric cancer requiring a skin incision done under general or neuraxial anaesthesia. The primary outcome was death or major complication within 30 days of surgery. Multilevel logistic regression determined relationships within three-level nested models of patients within hospitals and countries. Hospital-level infrastructure effects were explored with three-way mediation analyses. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03471494. Findings: Between April 1, 2018, and Jan 31, 2019, we enrolled 15 958 patients from 428 hospitals in 82 countries (high income 9106 patients, 31 countries; upper-middle income 2721 patients, 23 countries; or lower-middle income 4131 patients, 28 countries). Patients in LMICs presented with more advanced disease compared with patients in high-income countries. 30-day mortality was higher for gastric cancer in low-income or lower-middle-income countries (adjusted odds ratio 3¬∑72, 95% CI 1¬∑70‚Äď8¬∑16) and for colorectal cancer in low-income or lower-middle-income countries (4¬∑59, 2¬∑39‚Äď8¬∑80) and upper-middle-income countries (2¬∑06, 1¬∑11‚Äď3¬∑83). No difference in 30-day mortality was seen in breast cancer. The proportion of patients who died after a major complication was greatest in low-income or lower-middle-income countries (6¬∑15, 3¬∑26‚Äď11¬∑59) and upper-middle-income countries (3¬∑89, 2¬∑08‚Äď7¬∑29). Postoperative death after complications was partly explained by patient factors (60%) and partly by hospital or country (40%). The absence of consistently available postoperative care facilities was associated with seven to 10 more deaths per 100 major complications in LMICs. Cancer stage alone explained little of the early variation in mortality or postoperative complications. Interpretation: Higher levels of mortality after cancer surgery in LMICs was not fully explained by later presentation of disease. The capacity to rescue patients from surgical complications is a tangible opportunity for meaningful intervention. Early death after cancer surgery might be reduced by policies focusing on strengthening perioperative care systems to detect and intervene in common complications. Funding: National Institute for Health Research Global Health Research Unit

    Effects of hospital facilities on patient outcomes after cancer surgery: an international, prospective, observational study