Molecular Genetics of Metastatic Breast Cancer

Abstract

Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer in women. Breast cancer has a heterogeneous etiology. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to the pathogenesis and progression of breast cancer. Various genes as proliferation and nuclear factors have been identified in breast cancer. Therefore, the genetic component of patients is important in determining disease behavior, response to anticancer therapeutics, and patient survival. Prognosis of breast cancer is associated with potential metastatic properties of primary breast tumors. Metastasis is the leading cause of death in patients with breast cancer. Therefore, it is important to understand the mechanisms underlying the development of distant metastases to specific regions and has clinical value. Metastasis shows an organ-specific spread pattern and occurs with a series of complex and multistep events associated with each other, such as angiogenesis, invasion, migration-motility, extravasation, and proliferation. Breast cancer often metastasizes to the bone, liver, brain, and lungs. Metastasis may develop years after successful primary treatment. The metastatic process will become clear, as information about molecules and genes associated with metastases increases, and this is extremely important for cancer treatment

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