5,998 research outputs found

    Challenging the discursive positioning of young British Muslims through the multilingual performance of devotional song and poetry

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    This article presents data which challenge current hegemonic discourses in public and media spaces which reductively position young British Muslims as linguistically problematic. Framing these data are public space statements which argue for an overly simple linguistic basis to so-called extremist behaviour based on the presence or absence of the English language. Through an analysis of a questionnaire and interviews carried out with young performers, singers and reciters of devotional song and poetry in a range of language varieties, this article shows how such performance practices lead to the deployment of complex and mobile language resources which help negotiate and fashion rich linguistic repertoires and fluid identities for these young British Muslims. The article argues that these are (a) more representative of the wider British Muslim youth community, (b) unmarked, and thus generally invisible within public discourses and (c) a far cry from the prevailing discursive attempts to frame young Muslims as posing a linguistic problem

    Challenging the discursive positioning of young British Muslims through the multilingual performance of devotional song and poetry

    Get PDF
    This article presents data which challenge current hegemonic discourses in public and media spaces which reductively position young British Muslims as linguistically problematic. Framing these data are public space statements which argue for an overly simple linguistic basis to so-called extremist behaviour based on the presence or absence of the English language. Through an analysis of a questionnaire and interviews carried out with young performers, singers and reciters of devotional song and poetry in a range of language varieties, this article shows how such performance practices lead to the deployment of complex and mobile language resources which help negotiate and fashion rich linguistic repertoires and fluid identities for these young British Muslims. The article argues that these are (a) more representative of the wider British Muslim youth community, (b) unmarked, and thus generally invisible within public discourses and (c) a far cry from the prevailing discursive attempts to frame young Muslims as posing a linguistic problem

    The Role of Muslim Devotional Practices in the Reversal of Language Shift

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    Fishman’s 1991 scale for evaluating language vitality proposes a stage in language shift where exclusively the older generation takes part in ‘rituals’, ‘concerts’ and ‘songfests’ in the minority language. Once this generation dies away, according to the scale, these cultural practices disappear with them. Within certain Muslim youth communities in the UK counter examples exist where the younger generation leads the way in reviving, performing and extending the repertoire of this religio-cultural heritage. Although this emerging expanded repertoire of song and poetry is clearly multilingual in nature, recitation and performance of the community heritage languages, Urdu and Punjabi, feature strongly. What remains to discover is whether such increasing familiarity with poetic language and form can impact positively on reversing the language shift these communities are experiencing in their third and fourth generations. Although there is evidence (Ostler & Lintinger 2015) that singing and reciting in other minority language settings, secular and religious, are not infrequent pursuits of youth, it is argued in this article that an accompanying religious revival provides an important extra, galvanising, boost to the process of possible reversing language shift. It is suggested that available scales for evaluating language vitality are inadequate in the face of complex diasporic minority language settings

    Intense Source of Slow Positrons

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    We describe a novel design for an intense source of slow positrons based on pair production with a beam of electrons from a 10 MeV accelerator hitting a thin target at a low incidence angle. The positrons are collected with a set of coils adapted to the large production angle. The collection system is designed to inject the positrons in a Greaves-Surko trap [1]. Such a source could be the basis for a series of experiments in fundamental and applied research and would also be a prototype source for industrial applications which concern the field of defect characterization in the nanometer scale.Comment: submitted to N.I.M.

    To what extent are sacred language practices ultralingual? The experience of British Muslim children learning Qur’anic Arabic

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    This article draws on qualitative data from a study of young Muslims learning Qur’anic Arabic in the UK to reveal how they engage in sacred language practices that I choose to call ‘ultralingual’. Such practices inevitably foreground linguistic form and performance over meaning, at least in the referential sense. Observable in many faith contexts, the ability to acquire a certain proficiency in an invariably ancient sacred language and then participate, actively and passively, in a range of ritual acts is demonstrated by millions of children globally. Usually attending supplementary forms of education, such children learn to access the code of their respective faiths (e.g., Qur’anic Arabic for Muslims and Biblical Hebrew for Jews) through, usually, a traditional learning approach based initially on systematic instruction in sound-letter correspondences which eventually develops into secure decoding proficiency. An important characteristic of this language practice is the ambivalent role of referential meaning. Often, performers, whether in recitation or in the words uttered in prayers, have partial or no access to the meaning of the words they utter. This article calls this ‘ultralingualism’, a language phenomenon that occurs also in non-religious contexts such as vocal music and multilingual literacy mediation, but which is particularly apparent in faith practices which centre on an ancient text and its language. The young Muslims in this article, however, do not take part in meaningless activities. Much sacred language practice (and some co-sanctified language practice) happens ultralingually, that is, form is emphasised over referential meaning. Evidence in this article argues that such ultralingual practices are accompanied nevertheless by layers of meaning often unrelated to referential or lexical meaning

    Some linguistic implications of transferring rituals online : the case of bay'ah or allegiance pledging in Sufism

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    Within the growing body of research devoted to exploring digital religion (Campbell, 2013), relatively little attention has been paid to the linguistic implications of religion moving online. In a study focusing on the online ritual of bay’ah, or allegiance pledging, in Sufism, this article presents findings that identify instances of language form and practice being modified and transformed when ritual moves online. Two aspects of linguistic change are considered. The first explores how an offline, predominantly orally based ritual transfers to a predominantly visual and written mode of communication online. The second considers how ritual performativity is maintained, modified or reduced as a consequence of this transfer. Using a combination of multimodal discourse analysis and speech act theory, an analysis of the findings suggests that a variety of approaches are used by designers of online ritual portals to address these linguistic challenges

    Dizajniranje i sinteza novih derivata tiofenkarbohidrazida, tienopirazola i tienopirimidina s antioksidativnim i antitumorskim djelovanjem

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    2-Amino-5-acetyl-4-methyl-thiophene-3-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (1) and 5-acetyl-2-amino-4-methylthiophene-3-carbohydrazide (2) were synthesized and used as starting materials for the synthesis of new series of 1-(5-amino-4-(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazole-1-carbonyl)-3-methylthiophen-2-yl) ethanone (3a), 1-(5-amino-4-(4-chloro-3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazole-1-carbonyl)-3-methylthiophen-2-yl) ethanone (3b), 1-(4-methyl-2-amino-5-acetylthiophene-3-carbonyl) pyrazolidine-3,5-dione (4), (Z)-N\u27-(4-methyl-2-amino-5-acetylthiophene-3-carbonyl) formohydrazonic acid (5a), (Z)-ethyl-N\u27-(4-methyl-2-amino-5-acetylthiophene-3-carbonylformo hydrazonate (5b), 6-acetyl-3-amino-2,5-dimethylthieno2,3-dpyrimidin-4(3H)-one (8), 5-methyl-3-amino-2-mercapto-6-acetylthieno2,3-dpyrimidin-4(3H)-one (10) and 5-methyl-6-acetyl-2-thioxo-2,3-dihydrothieno2,3-dpyrimidin-4(1H)-one (12) as potential antioxidant and antitumor agents. Pharmacological results showed that compounds 6a, 6b, 8, 10 and 12 exhibited promising antitumor and antioxidant activity.Etilni ester 2-amino-5-acetil-4-metil-tiofen-3-karboksilne kiseline (1) i 5-acetil-2-amino-4-metiltiofen-3-karbohidrazid (2) sintetizirani su i upotrebljeni kao reaktanti u sintezi novih spojeva 1-(5-amino-4-(3,5-dimetil-1H-pirazol-1-karbonil)-3-metiltiofen-2-il) etanona (3a), 1-(5-amino-4-(4-klor-3,5-dimetil-1H-pirazol-1-karbonil)-3-metiltiofen-2-il) etanona (3b), 1-(4-metil-2-amino-5-acetiltiofen-3-karbonil) pirazolidin-3,5-diona (4), (Z)-N\u27-(4-metil-2-amino-5-acetiltiofen-3-karbonil) formohidrazonske kiseline (5a), (Z)-etil-N\u27-(4-metil-2-amino-5-acetiltiofen-3-karbonilformo hidrazonata (5b), 6-acetil-3-amino-2,5-dimetiltieno2,3-dpirimidin-4(3H)-one (8), 5-metil-3-amino-2-merkapto-6-acetiltieno2,3-dpirimidin-4(3H)-ona (10) i 5-metil-6-acetil-2-tiokso-2,3-dihidrotieno2,3-dpirimidin-4(1H)-ona (12) kao potencijalnih antioksidansa i citostatika. Farmakoloơka ispitivanja ukazuju na to da spojevi 6a, 6b, 8, 10 i 12 imaju značajno antitumorsko i antioksidativno djelovanje

    Temperature effects on load transmission between slabs and shores

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    This paper analyses the influence of temperature changes on load transmission between floor slabs and shores during the in situ casting of concrete slabs by the shoring-clearing-striking method. Therefore several experimental studies were carried out which measured both the internal temperature evolution of the slabs and the loads on the shores. With the results of these studies, a Finite Element Model (FEM) of an experimental structure was then developed. In both the FEM and the experimental studies the same behaviour was observed regarding changes in temperature. When temperatures rose, the loads on shores decreased, accompanied by a reduction in slab deflection. When temperatures dropped, the loads on the shores increased, accompanied by an increased slab deflection. In the experimental study, for a temperature increment of ±1°C the load per surface unit on shores varied between 0.13kN/m 2 and 0.34kN/m 2, which represents between 2% and 6% of the self-weight of the slabs. The main cause of these load variations appears to be the temperature gradient inside the floor slabs.The authors would like express their gratitude to the Spanish Ministry for Science and Technology for funding the project (BIA2004-02085) and also to the Encofrados J. Alsina formwork company for their invaluable assistance.Gasch, I.; Alvarado Vargas, YA.; Calderón García, PA. (2012). Temperature effects on load transmission between slabs and shores. Engineering Structures. 39:89-102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2012.02.004S891023

    Social inclusion and valued roles : a supportive framework

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    The aim of this paper is to examine the concepts of social exclusion, social inclusion and their relevance to health, well-being and valued social roles. The article presents a framework, based on Social Role Valorization (SRV), which was developed initially to support and sustain socially valued roles for those who are, or are at risk of, being devalued within our society. The framework incorporates these principles and can be used by health professionals across a range of practice, as a legitimate starting point from which to support the acquisition of socially valued roles which are integral to inclusio
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