17,262 research outputs found

    Evaluation of castor pistillate lines and analysis of mode of inheritance for resistance to Fusarium wilt disease in castor (Ricinus communis L.)

    No full text
    Castor is an industrially economic and valuable oilseed crop cultivated worldwide. There is a constant upsurge in demand for its oil. But wilt caused by Fusarium spp. is a devastating disease that severely affects the productivity depending upon the crop stage. Stable high yielding pistillate lines serve as donors in heterosis breeding programme and for further biotechnological advancements. Genetic characterization of wilt resistance indicated the role of duplicate dominant epistasis in YTP 1¬†√ó¬†TMV 5, complementary epistasis in DPC 9¬†√ó¬†JP 65 and JP 65¬†√ó¬†SKI 215, duplicate recessive epistasis in YRCP 1¬†√ó¬†DPC 9. Monogenic recessive nature of wilt resistance was reported in other four cross combinations viz., YRCP 2¬†√ó¬†JP 65, SKP 84¬†√ó¬†JP 65, YRCP 2¬†√ó¬†DPC 9 and YRCP 2¬†√ó¬†SKP 84. Magnified images taken using LED phase contrast microscope portrayed the presence of microconidia and macroconidia and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) image analysis showed the presence of intact internal cell structures in resistant check (48‚ąí1) while the cell structures were disturbed with mycelial growth in the susceptible check (JI 35). Among 21 pistillate lines screened, seven viz., DPC 9, DPC 16, SKP 84, JP 96, GEETA, M 574 and M 619‚Äď1 were resistant. By screening P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1F1 (P1) and BC1F1 (P2) generations of eight crosses under field and pot test method, the stable pistillate line DPC 9 was found to be wilt resistant. F1 generation plants expressed 100% susceptibility indicating the recessive nature of wilt resistance. JP 65¬†√ó¬†SKI 215 and YRCP 1¬†√ó¬†DPC 9 showed the minimum incidence comparing other F2 populations. The backcross (YRCP 1¬†√ó DPC 9) √ó¬†DPC 9 was found to possess the lowest wilt incidence compared to other populations under field and green house condition. Hence the identified lines could be better used to develop wilt resistant high yielding hybrid and for further identifying and introgressing genomic regions conferring wilt resistance to high yielding popular variety through linkage/QTL mapping technique

    Synthesis of 4<i>H</i>‚ÄĎPyrazolo[3,4‚ÄĎ<i>d</i>]pyrimidin-4-one Hydrazine Derivatives as a Potential Inhibitor for the Self-Assembly of TMV Particles

    No full text
    Tobacco mosaic virus coat protein (TMV-CP), as a potential target for the development of antiviral agents, can assist in the long-distance movement of viruses and plays an extremely important role in virus replication and propagation. This work focuses on the synthesis and the action mechanism of novel 4H-pyrazolo[3,4-d] pyrimidin-4-one hydrazine derivatives. The synthesized compounds exhibited promising antiviral activity on TMV. Specifically, compound G2 exhibited high inactivating activity (93%) toward TMV, slightly better than commercial reagent NNM (90%). The action of mechanism was further explored by employed molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulation, microscale thermophoresis, qRT-PCR, and transmission electron microscopy. Results indicated that G2 had the capability to interact with amino acid residues such as Trp352, Tyr139, and Asn73 in the active pocket of TMV-CP, creating strong hydrophobic interactions and thus obstructing the virus’s self-assembly

    Privacy-aware secured discrete framework in wireless sensor network

    Get PDF
    Rapid expansion of wireless sensor network-internet of things (WSN-IoT) in terms of application and technologies has led to wide research considering efficiency and security aspects. Considering the efficiency approach such as data aggregation along with consensus mechanism has been one of the efficient and secure approaches, however, privacy has been one of major concern and it remains an open issue due to low classification and high misclassification rate. This research work presents the privacy and reliable aware discrete (PRD-aggregation) framework to protect and secure the privacy of the node. It works by initializing the particular variable for each node and defining the threshold; further nodes update their state through the functions, and later consensus is developed among the sensor nodes, which further updates. The novelty of PRD is discretized transmission for efficiency and security. PRD-aggregation offers reliability through efficient termination criteria and avoidance of transmission failure. PRD-aggregation framework is evaluated considering the number of deceptive nodes for securing the node in the network. Furthermore, comparative analysis proves the marginal improvisation in terms of discussed parameter against the existing protocol

    Naisiin kohdistuvaan digitaaliseen väkivaltaan puuttumisen haasteet poliisin työssä, rikosprosessissa ja tukipalveluissa

    Get PDF
    Tutkimuksessa tarkasteltiin digitaaliseen väkivaltaan puuttumisen haasteita ja mahdollisuuksia poliisin työssä, rikosprosessissa ja tukipalveluissa. Tutkimuksen aineisto koostuu poliisin rikosilmoitusaineistosta, poliisien, syyttäjien ja väkivaltatyön tukipalveluiden työntekijöiden fokusryhmähaastatteluista sekä digitaalista väkivaltaa kokeneille suunnatusta verkkokyselystä. Digitalisoituminen ja viestintäteknologioiden kehittyminen ovat muuttaneet naisiin kohdistuvan väkivallan muotoja, vaikutuksia ja seurauksia. Väkivallan, häirinnän, uhkailun, häpäisemisen ja kontrollin muodot ovat moninaistuneet. Digitaalisen väkivallan seuraukset ovat usein väkivallan kohteille syvästi haavoittavia, traumatisoivia, toimijuutta lamauttavia, osallisuutta rajoittavia ja elinpiiriä kapeuttavia. Digitaaliseen väkivaltaan puuttumisen keskeisenä haasteena ovat puutteet ilmiön tunnistamisessa, sen vakavuuden ymmärtämisessä ja asenteissa. Ilmiö on normalisoitunut osaksi arkea sekä läheisissä suhteissa että sosiaalisessa mediassa ja julkisessa keskustelussa. Käytäntöjen ja asenteiden muuttaminen edellyttää koulutuksen kehittämistä sekä tietoisuuden lisäämistä väkivallan eri ilmenemismuodoista. Ilmiöön puuttuminen vaatii myös moniammatilliseen yhteistyöhön ja tutkimukseen panostamista, käsitteiden tarkentamista, väkivallan dokumentoinnin käytäntöjen yhtenäistämistä sekä esitutkintapöytäkirjojen laatuun panostamista. Myös digitaalisen median alustojen vastuuta tulee korostaa ja palveluiden alueellista saatavuutta parantaa.Tämä julkaisu on toteutettu osana valtioneuvoston selvitys- ja tutkimussuunnitelman toimeenpanoa. (tietokayttoon.fi) Julkaisun sisällöstä vastaavat tiedon tuottajat, eikä tekstisisältö välttämättä edusta valtioneuvoston näkemystä

    The Creation of Telangana and Thereafter…

    Get PDF
    The state of Telangana came into existence in June 2014. The separation of Telangana from its parent state was the end result of decades of struggle by the people from this region. Six years down the lane, post its creation the state has evolved gradually from the shadow of its parent state and has tried to carve its own developmental path. The present paper traces the origin and progress of the demand for separate statehood for Telangana. It then looks at the process of the creation of a new state of Telangana. The final part of this paper delves into the story of Telangana, post its statehood, identifying some of the challenges that the state continues to face post its creation

    Breeding Melons for Resistance to Viral and Fungal Diseases. Exploiting the Multi-Resistant Accession TGR-1551

    Full text link
    [ES] Las cucurbit√°ceas son la segunda familia de hort√≠colas m√°s importante a nivel mundial, solo por detr√°s de las solan√°ceas. Tradicionalmente su cultivo se ha llevado a cabo en las zonas templadas del planeta. Sin embargo, las condiciones de cambio clim√°tico, el comercio internacional y los modelos de agricultura intensiva favorecen la aparici√≥n de nuevas virosis y enfermedades f√ļngicas en zonas donde antes no estaban presentes. En este sentido, resulta esencial el monitoreo peri√≥dico de las principales zonas productoras, para as√≠ poder detectar los virus y hongos emergentes en cada territorio y adaptar los programas de mejora a los objetivos espec√≠ficos de cada zona. En el caso concreto del mel√≥n (Cucumis melo) existe una gran variabilidad intraespec√≠fica que puede servir como fuente de alelos de resistencia frente a estos pat√≥genos. Sin embargo, las fuentes de resistencia suelen encontrarse dentro del germoplasma silvestre, normalmente originario de √Āfrica o Asia, y en el que el nivel de domesticaci√≥n es reducido. Para un mejor aprovechamiento de las accesiones resistentes, resulta necesario un estudio del control gen√©tico de los caracteres de inter√©s, que permita localizar las regiones asociadas a la resistencia y dise√Īar marcadores moleculares asociadas a las mismas. Esto facilita los programas de mejora orientados a la introgresi√≥n de las resistencias manteniendo el fondo gen√©tico de las variedades de inter√©s En la presente tesis doctoral, durante las campa√Īas de verano de 2019 y 2020, se ha llevado a cabo un estudio de la incidencia y diversidad gen√©tica de 9 especies virales potencialmente limitantes para el cultivo de cucurbit√°ceas en el sur este espa√Īol. Se ha podido observar que los virus transmitidos por pulgones son prevalentes frente a los transmitidos por mosca blanca. Dentro del primer grupo destac√≥ la presencia de watermelon mosaic virus (WMV), cucurbits aphid borne yellows virus (CABYV) y cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), ya que fueron detectados en todas las zonas y cultivos estudiados, apareciendo frecuentemente en infecciones mixtas. Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus (MWMV) y tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) tambi√©n fueron detectados en algunas zonas, pero con porcentajes de infecci√≥n m√°s bajos y normalmente en infecciones mixtas con WMV. Los an√°lisis filogen√©ticos de los distintos aislados encontrados ha permitido la identificaci√≥n de 7 nuevos perfiles moleculares de WMV y de aislados recombinantes de CMV, lo que es consistente con los resultados obtenidos en otros pa√≠ses y pone de manifiesto la gran variabilidad de estos pat√≥genos. Las accesiones silvestres de mel√≥n recogidas en distintos bancos de germoplasma son un valioso recurso para los programas de mejora gen√©tica frente a estreses bi√≥ticos. La accesi√≥n africana TGR-1551 ha sido descrita previamente como resistente a WMV, CYSDV (cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus), CABYV y el hongo Podosphaera xanthii (Px, razas 1, 2 y 5) agente causal del o√≠dio en mel√≥n. Adem√°s, es tolerante a la mosca blanca (Bemisia tabaci) y portadora del gen Vat (virus aphid transmission), el cual limita la transmisi√≥n de virus por pulg√≥n. Por lo tanto, esta accesi√≥n constituye una buena fuente de alelos de resistencia y, al poder utilizar un √ļnico parental donante, su uso acortar√≠a los programas de mejora. En el marco de la presente tesis doctoral, mediante el desarrollo de poblaciones segregantes de mapeo y el aprovechamiento de las tecnolog√≠as de genotipado masivo se han podido cartografiar los QTLs asociados a la resistencia a CYSDV derivados de esta entrada. En el caso de la resistencia a CYSDV, se han detectado dos QTL en el cromosoma 5. El primero de ellos es de efecto mayor y herencia dominante, estando asociado al desarrollo de s√≠ntomas. El segundo QTL, de efecto menor y tambi√©n de herencia dominante, no confiere resistencia por s√≠ mismo y est√° asociado a la carga viral durante la infecci√≥n. Siguiendo una estrategia similar se han podido cartografiar y estrecha[CA] Les cucurbit√†cies s√≥n la segona fam√≠lia d'hort√≠coles m√©s important a nivell mundial, nom√©s per darrere de les solan√†cies. Tradicionalment el seu cultiu s'ha dut a terme a les zones temperades del planeta. No obstant aix√≤, les condicions de canvi clim√†tic, el comer√ß internacional i els models d'agricultura intensiva afavoreixen l'aparici√≥ de noves virosis i malalties f√ļngiques en zones on abans no estaven presents. En aquest sentit, resulta essencial el monitoratge peri√≤dic de les principals zones productores, per a d'aquesta manera, poder detectar els virus i fongs emergents en cada territori i adaptar els programes de millora als objectius espec√≠fics de cada zona. En el cas concret del mel√≥ (Cucumis melo) existeix una gran variabilitat intraespec√≠fica que pot servir com a font d'al¬∑lels de resist√®ncia enfront d'aquests pat√≤gens. No obstant aix√≤, les fonts de resist√®ncia solen trobar-se dins del germoplasma silvestre, normalment originari d'√Äfrica o √Äsia, i en el qual el nivell de domesticaci√≥ √©s redu√Įt. Per a un millor aprofitament de les accessions resistents, resulta necessari un estudi del control gen√®tic dels car√†cters d'inter√©s, que permeta localitzar les regions associades a la resist√®ncia i dissenyar marcadors moleculars associats a aquestes. Aix√≤ facilita els programes de millora orientats a la introgressi√≥ de les resist√®ncies mantenint el fons gen√®tic de les varietats d'inter√©s. En la present tesi doctoral, durant les campanyes d'estiu de 2019 i 2020, s'ha dut a terme un estudi de la incid√®ncia i diversitat gen√®tica de nou esp√®cies virals potencialment limitants per al cultiu de cucurbit√†cies en el sud-est espanyol. S'ha pogut observar que els virus transmesos per pugons s√≥n prevalents enfront dels transmesos per mosca blanca. Dins del primer grup va destacar la pres√®ncia de watermelon mosaic virus (WMV), cucurbits aphid born yellows virus (CABYV) i cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), ja que van ser detectats en totes les zones i cultius estudiats, apareixent sovint en infeccions mixtes. Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus (MWMV) i tomatoleaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) tamb√© van ser detectats en algunes zones, per√≤ amb percentatges d'infecci√≥ m√©s baixos i normalment en infeccions mixtes amb WMV. Les an√†lisis filogen√®tiques dels diferents a√Įllats trobats ha perm√©s la identificaci√≥ de set nous perfils moleculars de WMV i d'a√Įllats recombinants de CMV, la qual cosa √©s consistent amb els resultats obtinguts en altres pa√Įsos i posa de manifest la gran variabilitat d'aquests pat√≤gens. Les accessions silvestres de mel√≥ recollides en diferents bancs de germoplasma s√≥n un valu√≥s recurs per als programes de millora gen√®tica enfront d'estressos bi√≤tics. L'accessi√≥ africana *TGR-1551 ha sigut descrita pr√®viament com a resistent a WMV, CYSDV (cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus), CABYV i el fong Podosphaera xanthii (Px, races 1, 2 i 5) agent causal de l'o√Įdi en mel√≥. A m√©s, √©s tolerant a la mosca blanca (Bemisia tabaci) i portadora del gen Vat (virus aphid transmission), el qual limita la transmissi√≥ de virus per pug√≥. Per tant, aquesta accessi√≥ constitueix una bona font d'al¬∑lels de resist√®ncia i, en poder utilitzar un √ļnic parental donant, el seu √ļs acurtaria els programes de millora. En el marc de la present tesi doctoral, mitjan√ßant el desenvolupament de poblacions segregants de mapatge i l'aprofitament de les tecnologies de genotipat massiu s'ha pogut cartografiar els QTLs associats a la resist√®ncia a CYSDV derivats d'aquesta entrada. En el cas de la resist√®ncia a CYSDV, s'han detectat dues QTL en el cromosoma cinc. El primer d'ells √©s d'efecte major i her√®ncia dominant, estant associat al desenvolupament de s√≠mptomes. El segon QTL, d'efecte menor i tamb√© d'her√®ncia dominant, no confereix resist√®ncia per si mateix i est√† associat a la c√†rrega viral durant la infecci√≥. Seguint una estrat√®gia similar s'han pogut cartografiar i estr√©nyer els *QTLs de resist√®ncia enfront de Px. En aquest cas es tracta d'una epist√†sia dominant-re[EN] Cucurbits represent the second most important horticultural family worldwide, second only the Solanaceae family. Traditionally, their cultivation has been concentrated in temperate regions across the globe. However, climate change conditions, international trade, and intensive agricultural practices are contributing to the emergence of new viral and fungal diseases in regions where they were previously absent. In this regard, it is crucial to regularly monitor major production areas to detect emerging viruses and fungi specific to each region. This monitoring allows for the adaptation of breeding programs to the unique goals of each area. In the case of melon (Cucumis melo), it exists significant intraspecific variability that can serve as a source of resistance alleles against these pathogens. However, sources of resistance are often found within wild germplasm, typically originating from Africa or Asia, and characterized by limited domestication. To better utilize these resistant accessions, a study of the genetic control of desirable traits is necessary. This study aims to locate regions associated with resistance and design molecular markers linked to these regions. Such an approach streamlines breeding programs focused on introgressing resistance traits while preserving the genetic background of the desired varieties. During the summer campaigns of 2019 and 2020, this doctoral thesis conducted a study on the incidence and genetic diversity of nine viral species potentially affecting cucurbit cultivation in southeastern Spain. It was observed that viruses transmitted by aphids were more prevalent than those transmitted by whiteflies. Within the first group, the presence of watermelon mosaic virus (WMV), cucurbits aphid borne yellows virus (CABYV), and cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) stood out, as they were detected in all the studied areas and crops, often in mixed infections. Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus (MWMV) and tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) were also detected in some areas but with lower infection percentages, typically in mixed infections with WMV. Phylogenetic analyses of the found isolates have identified seven new molecular profiles of WMV and recombinant CMV isolates, which is consistent with results from other countries, highlighting the extensive variability of these pathogens. Wild melon accessions preserved in various germplasm banks represent a valuable resource for breeding programs against biotic stresses. The African accession TGR-1551 has been previously described as resistant to WMV, CYSDV (cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus), CABYV, and the fungus Podosphaera xanthii (Px, races 1, 2, and 5), which causes powdery mildew in melons. Additionally, it is tolerant to whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci) and carries the Vat gene (Virus Aphid Transmission), limiting virus transmission by aphids. Therefore, this accession constitutes as an excellent source of resistance alleles, and its use, as a single donor parent, can expedite breeding programs. Within the scope of this doctoral thesis, through the development of segregating mapping populations and the utilization of high-throughput genotyping technologies, the QTLs associated with CYSDV resistance from this accession have been mapped. In the case of CYSDV resistance, two QTLs have been detected on chromosome 5. The first of these, with major effects and dominant inheritance, is associated with symptom development. The second QTL, with minor effects and also dominant inheritance, does not confer resistance by itself and is linked to viral load during infection. A similar strategy was employed to map and narrow down the QTLs for resistance against Px. In this case, it involves a dominant-recessive epistasis, with the recessive gene located on chromosome 12 and the dominant gene on chromosome 5, specifically in the same region where the major CYSDV resistance QTL is located. Regarding resistance against WMV, previous studies conducted by the researchThis research was funded by the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovaci√≥n (MCIN/AEI/10.13039/501100011033), grant number PID2020-116055RB (C21 and C22), and by the Conselleria d‚ÄôEducaci√≥, Investigaci√≥, Cultura i Esports de la Generalitat Valenciana, grant number PROMETEO/2021/072 (to promote excellence groups, cofinanced with FEDER funds). M.L. is a recipient of a predoctoral fellowship (PRE2018-083466) of the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovaci√≥n y Universidades co-financed with FSE funds.L√≥pez Mart√≠n, M. (2023). Breeding Melons for Resistance to Viral and Fungal Diseases. Exploiting the Multi-Resistant Accession TGR-1551 [Tesis doctoral]. Universitat Polit√®cnica de Val√®ncia. https://doi.org/10.4995/Thesis/10251/20206

    RISK FACTORS FOR OPERATIVE WOUND INFECTION IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING PEDIATRIC CARDIAC SURGERY

    Get PDF
    &nbsp; Surgical wound infection is a significant complication in patients undergoing pediatric cardiac surgery, which can compromise the postoperative recovery process and increase morbidity. Several risk factors are associated with this condition, including patient characteristics, type of surgical procedure, hospital environment, and postoperative care practices. Understanding these factors is crucial to developing effective prevention strategies and optimizing clinical outcomes in this vulnerable population. Objective: To analyze and synthesize the available evidence on the risk factors for surgical wound infection in patients undergoing pediatric cardiac surgery. The aim is to identify patterns and gaps in the literature, contributing to a more comprehensive understanding of the elements that influence the occurrence of this specific complication. Methodology: The review was conducted following the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. The PubMed, Scielo and Web of Science databases were consulted to identify studies published in the last 10 years, using the descriptors "pediatric heart surgery", "operative wound infection", "risk factors", "children" and "prevention ". Three inclusion criteria were established, considering original studies that addressed risk factors in pediatric cardiac surgery, while three exclusion criteria were applied to filter articles that did not meet the specific objectives of the review. Results: Results revealed a variety of risk factors, including patient age, length of surgery, presence of comorbidities, and infection control practices. The review highlighted the importance of specific preventive strategies for the pediatric population undergoing cardiac procedures. Conclusion: This systematic review provides a comprehensive overview of risk factors for surgical wound infection in pediatric cardiac surgery, emphasizing the need for personalized prevention approaches. The conclusions highlight the importance of targeting preventive interventions, adapting them to the unique characteristics of this population, aiming to improve clinical results and reduce the incidence of postoperative infections.&nbsp; Surgical wound infection is a significant complication in patients undergoing pediatric cardiac surgery, which can compromise the postoperative recovery process and increase morbidity. Several risk factors are associated with this condition, including patient characteristics, type of surgical procedure, hospital environment, and postoperative care practices. Understanding these factors is crucial to developing effective prevention strategies and optimizing clinical outcomes in this vulnerable population. Objective: To analyze and synthesize the available evidence on the risk factors for surgical wound infection in patients undergoing pediatric cardiac surgery. The aim is to identify patterns and gaps in the literature, contributing to a more comprehensive understanding of the elements that influence the occurrence of this specific complication. Methodology: The review was conducted following the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. The PubMed, Scielo and Web of Science databases were consulted to identify studies published in the last 10 years, using the descriptors "pediatric heart surgery", "operative wound infection", "risk factors", "children" and "prevention ". Three inclusion criteria were established, considering original studies that addressed risk factors in pediatric cardiac surgery, while three exclusion criteria were applied to filter articles that did not meet the specific objectives of the review. Results: Results revealed a variety of risk factors, including patient age, length of surgery, presence of comorbidities, and infection control practices. The review highlighted the importance of specific preventive strategies for the pediatric population undergoing cardiac procedures. Conclusion: This systematic review provides a comprehensive overview of risk factors for surgical wound infection in pediatric cardiac surgery, emphasizing the need for personalized prevention approaches. The conclusions highlight the importance of targeting preventive interventions, adapting them to the unique characteristics of this population, aiming to improve clinical results and reduce the incidence of postoperative infections

    How do you sleep? Using off the shelf wrist wearables to estimate sleep quality, sleepiness level, chronotype and sleep regularity indicators

    Get PDF
    This piece of research is situated in the domain of multi-modal analytics. New commercial off the shelf wearables, such as smartwatches or wristbands, are becoming popular and increasingly used for fitness and wellness in a new trend known as the quantified-self movement. The sensors included in these devices (e.g. accelerometer, heart rate) in conjunction with data analytics algorithms are used to provide information such as steps walked, calories consumed, etc. The main goal of this piece of research is to check if new wearable technologies could be used to estimate sleep indicators in an automatic way. The available medical literature proposes several sleep-related features and methods to calculate them involving direct user observation, interviews or specific medical instrumentation. Off the shelf wearable vendors also provide some sleep indicators, such as the sleep duration, the number of awakes or the time to fall asleep. Taking as a reference the results and methods described in the medical literature and the data available in commercial off the shelf wearables, we propose new sleep indicators offering a greater interpretative value: sleep quality, sleepiness level, chronotype. The results obtained after initial experiments demonstrate the feasibility of this approach to be applied in real contexts. Eventually, we plan to apply these solutions to support educational scenarios related to self-regulated learning and teaching support.Agencia Estatal de Investigación | Ref. TIN2016-80515-RXunta de Galicia | Ref. GRC2013-006Universidade de Vig

    Establishment of Acquired Resistance Confers Reduced Levels of Superoxide and Hydrogen Peroxide in TMV-infected Tobacco Leaves

    No full text
    Infection of some leaves of Xanthi-nc tobacco with tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) induces systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in remote leaves of the plant to a second (challenge) infection, and therefore produces only a limited necrotization in the resistant leaves. Here we show that the levels of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide are lower in the remote infected leaves exhibiting the SAR. Treatment of leaves of Xanthi-nc tobacco with benzothiadiazole (BTH) also suppresses tissue necrotization and accumulation of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide upon TMV inoculation. However, both of these reactive oxygen species are up-regulated and tissue necrotization is increased in a transgenic NahG tobacco, which is unable to produce a SAR response. Treatment of TMV-infected NahG leaves with BTH also resulted in a reduced level of necrotization and an attenuated accumulation of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide after inoculation with TMV. Thus, the level of reactive oxygen species seems to be correlated with the size and number of necrotic lesions caused by TMV. It would seem that reactive oxygen species play a pivotal role in TMV-induced cell death response
    • ‚Ķ
    corecore