5,243,018 research outputs found

    Editorial note

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    Editorial Note: Polar Ecology Conference

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    Centre for Polar Ecology, Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia from September 30th to October 3rd, 2012

    Book Reports

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    Title: Law on Display The Digital Transformation of Legal Persuasion and Judgment Authors: Neal Feigenson and Christina Spiesel Date and place of publication: New York, 2011 Publisher: New York University Press ISBN: 978 0 8147 2845 1 (paperback) Title: Cloud Storage Forensics Authors: Darren Quick, Ben Martini and Kim-Kwang Raymond Choo Date of publication: 2014 Publisher: Syngress, an imprint of Elsevier ISBN: 978 0 12 419970 5 (paperback) Title: Plugged in: Guidebook to Software and the Law Authors: Daniel B. Garrier and Francis M. Allegra Date of publication: 2013 Publisher: Thomson Reuters Westlaw ISBN: 978 0 314 61223 6 (paperback

    ASSW 2017 - INFORMATION

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    Simulating the Impact of Traffic Calming Strategies

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    This study assessed the impact of traffic calming measures to the speed, travel times and capacity of residential roadways. The study focused on two types of speed tables, speed humps and a raised crosswalk. A moving test vehicle equipped with GPS receivers that allowed calculation of speeds and determination of speed profiles at 1s intervals were used. Multi-regime model was used to provide the best fit using steady state equations; hence the corresponding speed-flow relationships were established for different calming scenarios. It was found that capacities of residential roadway segments due to presence of calming features ranged from 640 to 730 vph. However, the capacity varied with the spacing of the calming features in which spacing speed tables at 1050 ft apart caused a 23% reduction in capacity while 350-ft spacing reduced capacity by 32%. Analysis showed a linear decrease of capacity of approximately 20 vphpl, 37 vphpl and 34 vphpl when 17 ft wide speed tables were spaced at 350 ft, 700 ft, and 1050 ft apart respectively. For speed hump calming features, spacing humps at 350 ft reduced capacity by about 33% while a 700 ft spacing reduced capacity by 30%. The study concludes that speed tables are slightly better than speed humps in terms of preserving the roadway capacity. Also, traffic calming measures significantly reduce the speeds of vehicles, and it is best to keep spacing of 630 ft or less to achieve desirable crossing speeds of less or equal to 15 mph especially in a street with schools nearby. A microscopic simulation model was developed to replicate the driving behavior of traffic on urban road diets roads to analyze the influence of bus stops on traffic flow and safety. The impacts of safety were assessed using surrogate measures of safety (SSAM). The study found that presence of a bus stops for 10, 20 and 30 s dwell times have almost 9.5%, 12%, and 20% effect on traffic speed reductions when 300 veh/hr flow is considered. A comparison of reduction in speed of traffic on an 11 ft wide road lane of a road diet due to curbside stops and bus bays for a mean of 30s with a standard deviation of 5s dwell time case was conducted. Results showed that a bus stop bay with the stated bus dwell time causes an approximate 8% speed reduction to traffic at a flow level of about 1400 vph. Analysis of the trajectories from bust stop locations showed that at 0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, and 175 feet from the intersection the number of conflicts is affected by the presence and location of a curbside stop on a segment with a road diet

    17-11 Evaluation of Transit Priority Treatments in Tennessee

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    Many big cities are progressively implementing transit friendly corridors especially in urban areas where traffic may be increasing at an alarming rate. Over the years, Transit Signal Priority (TSP) has proven to be very effective in creating transit friendly corridors with its ability to improve transit vehicle travel time, serviceability and reliability. TSP as part of Transit Oriented Development (TOD) is associated with great benefits to community liveability including less environmental impacts, reduced traffic congestions, fewer vehicular accidents and shorter travel times among others.This research have therefore analysed the impact of TSP on bus travel times, late bus recovery at bus stop level, delay (on mainline and side street) and Level of Service (LOS) at intersection level on selected corridors and intersections in Nashville Tennessee; to solve the problem of transit vehicle delay as a result of high traffic congestion in Nashville metropolitan areas. This study also developed a flow-delay model to predict delay per vehicle for a lane group under interrupted flow conditions and compared some measure of effectiveness (MOE) before and after TSP. Unconditional green extension and red truncation active priority strategies were developed via Vehicle Actuated Programming (VAP) language which was tied to VISSIM signal controller to execute priority for transit vehicles approaching the traffic signal at 75m away from the stop line. The findings from this study indicated that TSP will recover bus lateness at bus stops 25.21% to 43.1% on the average, improve bus travel time by 5.1% to 10%, increase side street delay by 15.9%, and favour other vehicles using the priority approach by 5.8% and 11.6% in travel time and delay reduction respectively. Findings also indicated that TSP may not affect LOS under low to medium traffic condition but LOS may increase under high traffic condition

    17-09 Assessing the Impact of Air Pollution on Public Health Along Transit Routes

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    Transportation sources account for a large proportion of the pollutants found in most urban areas. Also, transportation activity and intensity appear likely to contribute to the risk of respiratory disease occurrence. This research investigates the impacts of transportation, urban design and socioeconomic characteristics on the risk of air pollution-related respiratory diseases in two of the biggest MSAs (Metropolitan Statistical Areas) in the US, Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) and Los Angeles at the block group (BG) level, by considering the US Environmental Protection Agency’s respiratory hazard quotient (RHQ) as the dependent variable. The researchers identify thirty candidate indicators of disease risk from previous studies and use them as independent variables in the model. The study applies a three-step modeling including Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Ordinary Least Square (OLS) and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) to reach the final model. The results of this study demonstrate strong spatial correlations in the variability in both MSAs which help explain the impact of the indicators such as socioeconomic characteristics, transit access to jobs, and automobile access on the risk of respiratory diseases. The populations living in areas with higher transit access to jobs in urbanized areas and greater automobile access in more rural areas appear more prone to respiratory diseases after controlling for demographic characteristics

    Town of Orland Town Report 2011

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