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    8537 research outputs found

    THE ECONOMICS OF THE MANUSCRIPT AND RARE BOOK TRADE, ca. 1890–1939

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    The market for rare books has been characterized as unpredictable, and driven by the whims of a small number of rich individuals. Yet behind the headlines announcing new auction records, a range of sources make it possible to analyze the market as a whole. This book introduces the economics of the trade in manuscripts and rare books during the turbulent period ca. 1890–1939. It demonstrates how surviving sources, even when incomplete and inconsistent, can be used to tackle questions about the operation of the rare book trade, including how books were priced, profit margins, accounting practices, and books as investments, from the perspectives of both dealers and collectors

    Protection for Venezuelans in the spirit of Cartagena? An analysis of the spirit of Cartagena and how the protection policies for displaced Venezuelans in Brazil, Colombia and Peru held up to the standard of the spirit of Cartagena

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    In the midst of the largest exodus in Latin America and months before the fortieth anniversary of the 1984 Cartagena Declaration on Refugees, a discussion of the Latin American regional refugee regime is timely. This study reviews the protection policies of three receiving countries in Latin America during the Venezuelan displacement crisis for the period of 2015-2021. It begins with an over-arching discussion of the role and importance of regional refugee regimes. It continues with a narrowed focus on the Latin American regional refugee regime, centred around the 1984 Cartagena Declaration on Refugees. Then, it seeks to close a knowledge gap by defining and attributing elements to the ‘spirit of Cartagena’, an emerging concept stemming from the Cartagena regime. This broader discussion is put into perspective with a case study on the Latin American response to the Venezuelan displacement. The case study focuses on the forms of protection offered to displaced Venezuelans in Brazil, Colombia, and Peru. Then, an analysis is conducted on whether, and in what ways, the varying policies acted in the ‘spirit of Cartagena’. The analysis uses the defining elements of the ‘spirit of Cartagena’ as a measuring stick against themes of the discussed protection policies. The aim is to evaluate some of the region’s responses to the Venezuelan displacement crisis in the context of the notion of the ‘spirit of Cartagena.’ The conclusion is that a harmonised response within the regional refugee regime was ideal, however the policies were generally ad hoc, complementary, and temporary. Despite this, the pragmatism of the protection measures still reflected some aspects of the ‘spirit of Cartagena’

    Governance of Migration by Decree: Legal Life of Afghan Migrants in Iran

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    This working paper provides an overview of governance of Afghan migration in Iran. It argues that governance of Afghan migration is conducted mainly through rule by decree. Such decrees are not preceded by a consultative process and are declared ad hoc. As a result, there is a lack of legal certainty and migrants cannot really anticipate which protection they will get and until when. To make this argument, sources of laws regulating Afghans’ legal and formal life in Iran, including their rights and entitlements based on their documentation status, and impact of these laws in terms of certainty and predictability are studied. This working paper is based on desk research as well as qualitative interviews, the latter being the main source for untangling the governance regime due to scarcity of written sources of law

    ‘We are family!’ The kinship between individual cosponsor and sponsored refugee(s) and its impact on mental health service uptake

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    Resettled refugees underutilize mental health services, despite being the immigrant population with the highest incidence of mental health issues. In Canada, individual cosponsors, particularly family members of refugees, play a crucial role in providing social support and fostering a sense of belonging during the resettlement period. These have proven effective in promoting the mental health and overall well-being of refugees. The primary objective of this research is to investigate whether the kinship (family dynamics) between individual cosponsors and refugees influences the refugees’ willingness to access mental health services when needed. Purposive sampling was used to select nine participants. The semi-structure interviews conducted explored the participants’ experiences with mental health issues during the sponsorship process. Five individual cosponsors (CS) and four group sponsor representatives (CG) were interviewed. Inductive thematic analysis was used to code and analyze the data. Sixteen sponsorship experiences were discussed during the interviews. CGs identified social support and relationship building as factors influencing refugees’ access to mental health services. In contrast, CSs emphasised the role of reducing stigma associated with mental health in facilitating refugees’ access to such services. The results suggest that, despite the presence of social support, sense of belonging, and family dynamics inherent in the kinship between CS and refugee, the stigma surrounding mental health remains a significant determinant of refugee access to services. It is important to note that most participants based their responses on hypothetical scenarios rather than actual experiences, as only two out of the sixteen sponsorships mentioned involved mental health issues

    COST Action Blog: A Legal Identity for All?

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    The History of Identity Documentation in European Nations (HIDDEN) network unites scholars in history, migration studies, geography, sociology, law, linguistics, postcolonial studies, human rights and more to look at the history of ID regimes in Europe and beyond, drawing connections between the past and present

    Changing minds about climate change: a pervasive role for domain-general metacognition

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    Updating one’s beliefs about the causes and effects of climate change is crucial for altering attitudes and behaviours. Importantly, metacognitive abilities - insight into the (in)correctness of one’s beliefs- play a key role in the formation of polarised beliefs. We here aimed at investigated the role of metacognition in changing beliefs about climate change. To that end, we focused on the role of domain-general and domain-specific metacognition in updating prior beliefs about climate change across the spectrum of climate change scepticism. We also considered the role of how climate science is communicated in the form of textual or visuo-textual presentations. We asked two large US samples to perform a perceptual decision-making task (to assess domain-general decision-making and metacognitive abilities. They next performed a belief-updating task, where they were exposed to good and bad news about climate change and we asked them about their beliefs and their updating. Lastly, they completed a series of questionnaires probing their attitudes to climate change. We show that climate change scepticism is associated with differences in domain-general as well as domain-specific metacognitive abilities. Moreover, domain-general metacognitive sensitivity influenced belief updating in an asymmetric way: lower domain-general metacognition decreased the updating of prior beliefs, especially in the face of negative evidence. Our findings highlight the role of metacognitive failures in revising erroneous beliefs about climate change and point to their adverse social effects

    A Monumental Price Tag: The Cost of Furnishing a Family Chapel in the Second Half of the Fifteenth Century

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    The artistic decoration of family chapels in the churches and private palaces of Renaissance Italy has received much scholarly attention over the years. Fresco cycles, altarpieces, and sculpted tomb monuments have been studied in great detail. What is lacking, however, is an overview of the complete ensemble of investments and commissions of which these art works were once a part, including the purchase of chapel rights, stained glass windows, vestments and liturgical array for the mass, and provisions to keep the chapel in operation in the long term. The present essay seeks to make a start at recreating this wider context of the surviving artwork by looking at the cost (absolute and relative) of the different elements involved in three prominent Florentine chapel projects of the second half of the fifteenth century: the Strozzi, Gianfigliazzi, and Tornabuoni chapels. There is a wealth of published documentation for each of these projects, which will be compared systematically to give an impression of the scope and scale of the enterprise of furnishing a family chapel in the upper echelons of mercantile society at a time of increasing public projection of social prestige

    Description, translation and process: Making the implicit explicit in digital editions of ancient text-bearing objects

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    Digital editions of ancient texts and objects follow the nineteenth–twentieth century tradition of academic editing, but are able to be more explicit and accessible than their print analogues. The use of digital standards such as EpiDoc and Linked Open Data, that emphasise interoperability, linking and sharing, enables—we shall argue, obliges—the scholarly editor to make the digital publication open, accessible, transparent and explicit. We discuss three axes of openness: 1. The edition encodes dimensions and physical condition of the inscribed object, as well as photographs and other imagery, and should include translations to modern languages, rather than assuming fluency. 2. Contextual and procedural metadata include the origins of scholarly work, permissions, funding, influences on academic decision-making, material and intellectual property, trafficking, ethics, authenticity and archaeological context. 3. The digital standards and code implementing them, enabling interoperability among editions and projects, and depend on consistency and accessible documentation of practices, guidelines and customisations. Standards benefit from training in scholarly and digital methods, and the nurturing of a community to preserve and encourage the sustainable re-use of standards and editions. Ancient text-bearing objects need to be treated as material artefacts as well as the bearers of (sometimes abstract or immaterial) strings of historical text. All elements of the publication of both object and text are interpretive constructs. It is essential that we not neglect any of the material or immaterial information in all of these components, in our scholarly quest to make them explicit, interoperable and machine actionable

    Mission littéraire en Angleterre: Paul Meyer and the Quest for Medieval French Manuscripts at the Ashburnham-Barrois Sale (1901)

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    In this article, I explore the medieval manuscripts pursued for the Bibliothèque nationale at the Ashburnham-Barrois sale at Sotheby's auction house, London, in 1901, and the influential role of Paul Meyer, romance philologist and Director of the École des chartes, alongside the librarians Léopold Delisle and Henri Omont. Meyer knew the contents of the Barrois collection better than most, having visited the library at Ashburnham Place on multiple occasions since 1865. His early trips to England form my starting point for analysing the manuscripts prioritised at the sale. The London dealer Bernard Quaritch acted on behalf of the French national library in the auction room and their commission book reveals all the items pursued as well as the maximum bids allotted. By considering the choice of lots and values attributed to them, along with the scholarly assessments of the texts and manuscripts, the potential motivations behind their pursuit emerge. Finally, I turn to the Barrois manuscripts acquired after the sale and the perceptions of those lost. Through this analysis, I demonstrate how Meyer not only influenced scholarship on French-language manuscripts, but also the contents of the Bibliothèque nationale. This case study thus foregrounds the symbiotic relationships between scholarship on medieval French literary heritage and the history of manuscript ownership, by engaging with the trade in and values attributed to medieval manuscripts in the early twentieth century

    Millikan’s Consistency Testers and the Cultural Evolution of Concepts

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    Ruth Millikan has hypothesised that human cognition contains ‘consistency testers’. Consistency testers check whether different judgements a thinker makes about the same subject matter agree or conflict. Millikan’s suggestion is that, where the same concept has been applied to the world via two routes, and the two judgements that result are found to be inconsistent, that makes the thinker less inclined to apply those concepts in those ways in the future. If human cognition does indeed include such a capacity, its operation will be an important determinant of how people use concepts. It will have a major impact on which concepts they deploy and which means of application (conceptions) they rely on. Since consistency testers are a selection mechanism at the heart of conceptual thinking, they would be crucial to understanding how concepts are selected – why some are retained and proliferate and others die out. Hence, whether consistency testers for concepts exist, and how they operate, is an important question for those seeking to understand the cultural evolution of concepts, and of the words we use to express them

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