Western Michigan University

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    15341 research outputs found

    Perspectives on Adaptation in a Stroke Self-Management Program: A Multiple Case Study

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    Background: Occupational Adaptation occurs when a person develops a response to meet an occupational challenge. This process is disrupted when a person experiences a life altering event, such as stroke. Stroke self-management programs equip persons with stroke with education and skills to manage the daily tasks associated with their condition. Few studies have explored the adaptive process survivors experience as they seek to effectively use the tools provided through stroke self-management programs. The objective was to explore the adaptive process of three individuals following participation in a stroke self-management program. Method: A multiple case study design was used. Three participants completed an interview focused on their adaptive experiences as they learned to self-manage personal stroke risk factors. Each case study interview was analyzed to identify themes across cases. Results: Four themes were identified: (a) knowledge acquisition to generate an adaptive response, (b) behavioral change and adjustment in routines, (c) increased proactivity and personal responsibility and, (d) vvaluating the adaptive response-Physiological and emotional changes in health. Conclusion: The participants’ increased awareness and understanding of personal stroke risk factors facilitated the adaptive process, which resulted in increased efficiency, effectiveness, satisfaction, and engagement in health promoting behavior to self-manage their stroke condition

    Predictors of General Well-Being in Postprofessional Students of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy

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    Background: Doctoral students experience decreased well-being during their educational experience. Self-compassion, engagement in meaningful occupations, and occupational balance positively impact well-being in individuals. This study examined the relationships between these constructs in postprofessional occupational science and occupational therapy students. Method: This quantitative cross-sectional study collected national survey data (N = 113) using the Self-Compassion Scale – Short Form, the Engagement in Meaningful Activities Survey, the Occupational Balance Questionnaire 11, and the 14-item Scales of General Well-Being. Multiple linear regression analysis determined how well each construct predicted general well-being and the strength of each construct’s relationship compared to other constructs. Results: The model of combined variables was significant, F(3, 104) = 36.22, p \u3c .001, accounting for 51.1% of the general well-being variance. All predictors were significant, with the self-compassion standardized coefficient beta being largest (β = .39), followed by engagement in meaningful occupations (β = .38), and occupational balance (β = .16). Conclusion: Self-compassion, engagement in meaningful occupations, and occupational balance predicts well-being in postprofessional students, which is consistent with previously known relationships. The participants’ understanding of foundational tenants of occupational science and occupational therapy may have helped mitigate further decline in their well-being, confirming the power of occupation to positively impact well-being

    COVID-19 Pandemic’s Effect on Occupational Therapy Students’ Time-Use and Occupational Engagement On Returning to In-Person Learning

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    The COVID-19 pandemic emotionally and physically impacted students in occupational therapy and occupational therapy assistant programs. College students lost autonomy and access to meaningful occupations and environments. As students returned to campus, they struggled to navigate and adapt to in-person occupations and how they use their time. This study uses a mixed method descriptive research design to understand how the pandemic affected occupational therapy students\u27 time-use and occupational engagement during the transition to in-person learning. Seventy-three students completed an online survey, while 12 of those students additionally participated in a follow-up time-use diary and interview. Eighty-three percent of the participants agreed or strongly agreed they learned more effectively in-person compared to online, while 65% agreed or strongly agreed to make time to participate in satisfying occupations. Three themes emerged after the thematic analysis of the qualitative data: time compression, lessons from adapting, and autonomy and choice. The findings provide perspectives on occupational therapy students\u27 ability to adapt and manage their time during this transition and offer insight into other transitions in their programs

    A Scoping Review of Universal Design for Learning in United States Allied Health & Medical Education

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    Background: Universal design for learning (UDL) is considered best-practice for embracing inclusion for students with disabilities and there is growing evidence of its effectiveness in primary, secondary, and postsecondary education. However, little is known about if and how UDL is being implemented into United States graduate allied health and medical school curriculum as well as evidence of its benefits. Method: We used Arksey and O’Malley’s (2005) methodological framework. Search engines were: PubMed, CINAHL Complete, ERIC, GoogleScholar, and Scopus. Data were analyzed by the research team using Covidence to organize articles, screen, and complete a full-text review. Data extraction was completed by identifying key themes in the manuscripts and categorizing articles accordingly. Results: Six studies were eligible: three intervention and three descriptive articles. Findings identify a need for UDL in these programs but research regarding the effect of implementation of this framework into medical and allied health programs is lacking. Conclusion: There is a scarcity of research on UDL in graduate education from the United States. Much of the literature found on use of UDL in medical and allied health graduate level programs is non-experimental or descriptive. Future research is recommended to examine the impact of UDL in graduate education

    John Gower: The Minor Latin Works

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    A translation, with introductions, of the minor Latin works of John Gower

    Practice and Recommendations for Universal Design for Learning in Occupational Therapy Client Education

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    Background: Universal Design for Learning (UDL), an educational framework that describes flexible approaches to teaching and learning, can be used to address problems related to limitations in health literacy in health care settings. Methods: This exploratory observational study, using a web-based online survey, was undertaken to discern how occupational therapists use the principles of UDL in educating their clients and to determine if differences exist between degree type or practice settings and UDL implementation. Results: Of the 147 respondents only 30.6% indicated prior awareness of UDL principles. The most frequently cited means of client engagement were displaying enthusiasm and emphasizing importance of content; the most frequently cited means of representation was providing verbal instructions, and the most frequent means of action and expression was observing client performance or demonstration. Conclusions: There is a clear need to increase both academic preparation and continuing education of occupational therapists to implement evidence-based principles of UDL to address diverse client health literacy and facilitate positive health outcomes. Opportunities for increased UDL implementation are discussed, building on the commitment of current therapists to meet the needs of their clients

    Confronting Systemic Racism in Occupational Therapy: A Mixed Methods Study

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    This study aimed to examine how occupational therapists and students perceive systemic racism in occupational therapy practice and the effectiveness and impact of the delivery of a keynote address on confronting systemic racism in practice delivered to occupational therapists and students. The study aimed to help inform future efforts in creating a more diverse and inclusive profession at the practice, policy, and education level by providing input into the challenges and opportunities that occupational therapists and students face when reckoning with issues of racism in practice. A mixed methodology research design was used with Likert-style scale and open-ended questions delivered via online survey. Eighty-nine occupational therapists and students completed the online survey. Most of the respondents reported responding favorably to the keynote address and shared sentiment that it could be a difficult and uncomfortable topic, yet it was important to discuss because of its impact on the profession and the clients occupational therapists serve

    Elucidating College Students’ Stressors: Photovoice as a Pedagogical Tool and Qualitative Methodology

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    Traditional research examining student stress relies on surveys using pre-determined categories. This study diverts from that approach by adopting a Communication in Conflict class assignment over seven classes (N = 115) using photovoice to determine if results fluctuate by using a different methodology. Additionally, we sought to understand if the sources of stress vary by gender and semester. The data revealed seven categories as the main stressors of student conflict: 1) time management, 2) mental health, 3) finding oneself, 4) future uncertainty, 5) other, 6) financial, and 7) past mistakes. Regardless of participants’ sex/gender or semester in which the data were collected, time management and mental health remained constant. Furthermore, finding oneself and future uncertainty were stressors identified more often in the fall rather than the spring semester. These results varied from traditional survey research


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    Data was downloaded as an Excel spreadsheet which appeared in the Public Use Datasets section under the Cumulative Data link of Michigan\u27s Coronavirus webpage, under the url https://www.michigan.gov/coronavirus/stats. Cases are aggregated by the date of onset of COVID-19 symptoms, if known, otherwise by laboratory specimen date if known, otherwise by case referral date. Deaths are aggregated by the date of death if known, otherwise by the last date of a change to the case status


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    Data was downloaded as an Excel spreadsheet which appeared in the Public Use Datasets section under the Cumulative Data link of Michigan\u27s Coronavirus webpage, under the url https://www.michigan.gov/coronavirus/stats. Cases are aggregated by the date of onset of COVID-19 symptoms, if known, otherwise by laboratory specimen date if known, otherwise by case referral date. Deaths are aggregated by the date of death if known, otherwise by the last date of a change to the case status


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