7,866 research outputs found

    Flood mitigation by permeable pavements in Chinese sponge city construction

    Get PDF
    It is important to evaluate the effectiveness of permeable pavements on flood mitigation at different spatial scales for their effective application, for example, sponge city construction in China. This study evaluated the effectiveness of three types of permeable pavements (i.e., permeable asphalts (PA), permeable concretes (PC), and permeable interlocking concrete pavers (PICP)) on flood mitigation at a community scale in China using a hydrological model. In addition, the effects of clogging and initial water content in permeable pavements on flood mitigation performance were assessed. The results indicated that in 12 scenarios, permeable pavements reduced total surface runoff by 1–40% and peak flow by 7–43%, respectively. The hydrological performance of permeable pavements was limited by clogging and initial water content. Clogging resulted in the effectiveness on total surface runoff reduction and peak flow reduction being decreased by 62–92% and 37–65%, respectively. By increasing initial water content at the beginning of the simulation, the effectiveness of total runoff reduction and peak flow reduction decreased by 57–85% and 37–67%, respectively. Overall, among the three types of permeable pavements, PC without clogging had the best performance in terms of flood mitigation, and PICP was the least prone to being clogged. Our findings demonstrate that both the type and the maintenance of permeable pavements have significant effects on their performance in the flood mitigation

    Applying Performance Engineered Mixture Design to Permeable Concrete

    Get PDF
    The scope of research and application related to permeable pavements has recently broadened. The desire to significantly reduce the environmental impact of large paved areas makes the permeable pavement concept more desirable (American Concrete Institute, 2018). Although research and interest are increasing, the actual application of permeable pavement is still very limited and has not reached the airfield arena. In airfields, permeable pavement could possibly be used for aircraft aprons - which currently require substantial measures to control stormwater runoff. Permeable pavements are typically used in low-traffic-volume / lightly loaded applications; questions remain regarding a permeable pavement’s ability to hold the load of an aircraft. In the highways arena, there is a greater emphasis on pavement performance, resulting in a shift from prescriptive specifications to performance specifications for pavements (Ahlstrom, 2018). Performance Engineered Mixtures (PEM) are recently developed performance specifications proposed by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO, 2018). PEM’s specifications and new technology for testing aim to improve durability and increase sustainable efforts within concrete pavements. This project seeks to apply new PEM technology and testing to permeable concrete, and to assess the feasibility of applying permeable concrete to airfield pavements

    Monitoring and evaluation of the thermal behavior of permeable pavements for energy recovery purposes in an experimental parking lot: Preliminary results

    Get PDF
    Permeable pavements offer a solution for rainwater runoff treatment in urban areas, combining water management with water reuse purposes when the sealed subbase become rainwater reservoirs. Furthermore, the thermal behaviour investigations of these systems have proved their contribution to palliate the urban heat island effect in the hottest season and to delay freezing during the coldest season. Increasing knowledge of heat transfer mechanisms into the permeable pavements and their sub-base has enabled the use of these structures combined with Ground Source Heat Pumps (GSHP) in addition to the other well-known applications. The aim of the present study is to investigate the thermal response observations of permeable pavements under specific weather conditions while paying attention to the temperature distribution in the subbase, where rainfall water is stored for others uses, in order to evaluate the possibility of introducing GSHP technology. The bedding layer and sub-base temperature of reinforced grass permeable pavements was monitored during 3 months in summer 2008 and the preliminary results obtained show sub-base temperature different from the air temperature during the period of study; and demonstrate that the sub-base is less affected by the air temperature than the bedding layer due to the insulating capacity of permeable pavements, explained through the heat transfer processes that take place into the pavements

    From Pilot Projects to Transformative Infrastructures, Exploring Market Receptivity for Permeable Pavement in The Netherlands

    Get PDF
    Climate change and changing land use challenge the livability and flood safety of Dutch cities. One option cities have to become more climate-proof is to increase infiltration of stormwater into soil through permeable pavement and thus reduce discharge of stormwater into sewer systems. To analyze the market receptivity for permeable pavements in the Netherlands, this article focuses on the perception of end-users towards key transition factors in the infrastructure transformation processes. Market receptivity was studied on two levels: (1) on the system level, by analyzing 20 key factors in the Dutch urban water sector that enable wider application of permeable pavements; and (2) on the technology level, by analyzing 12 key factors that explain why decision makers select permeable pavements or not. Results show that trust between cooperating partners was perceived as the system level key factor that needs to be improved most to facilitate the wider uptake of permeable pavements. Additionally, the association of end-users with permeable pavement, particularly their willingness to apply these technologies and their understanding of what kinds of benefits these technologies could bring, was regarded the most important receptivity attribute. On the technology level, the reliability of permeable pavement was regarded as the most important end-user consideration for selecting this technolog

    Understanding urban hydrology through measurements of infiltration capacity of permeable pavements under real-live circumstances

    Get PDF
    Over the past decades various types of permeable pavements have been implemented in different municipalities in the Netherlands in order to improve infiltration capacity in urban areas and therewith being able to better treat stormwater runoff. With initial promising results this adaptation measure seemed to be the solution for urban flooding due to extreme precipitation. However, in practice, foreseen infiltration capacities were usually not met, often due unknown reasons. To better understand the functioning of permeable pavements in practice, we have studied - as part of the project Infiltrating Cities - over 100 existing permeable pavement installations in the Netherlands. At each location, infiltration capacity was tested through a full-scale infiltration testing procedure (flooded area about 40 m2) while conditional on-site factors were collected (location, age, type of permeable pavement, street-type, traffic density, vicinity of urban green, regular maintenance regime, etc.). By coupling this information we analyzed how these factors influence the infiltration capacity of permeable pavements in practice, e.g. through accelerated deterioration of infiltration capacity through time. In addition, we evaluated for a selected number of installations, how various types of maintenance may counteract this deterioration, hence improving the infiltration capacity of permeable pavements

    Are permeable pavements a sustainable solution?:- A qualitative study of the usage of permeable pavement

    Get PDF
    This paper contains an interview-based study focusing on permeable pavements as part of sustainable drainage systems. Climate change is causing pluvial flooding, according to the newest IPCC report. This mostly affects urban areas in cities due to: (1) limited capacity of existing drainage systems during heavy-intensity rainfall over a short period of time and (2) limited space for ditches in city areas. Permeable pavements are, therefore, sustainable drainage solutions which combine road infrastructure with water infrastructure. Are permeable pavements a preferable sustainable solution? To answer that question, 24 respondents were interviewed. The interview study was based on a semi-structured interview methodology. A lessons-learned experience was gathered, and the following conclusions were contrived: Firstly, official guidelines on how to construct, consult, and maintain permeable pavements are required. Secondly, more contractors should be able to offer the same product. Finally, official guidelines on the relationship between the contractors are required. These three indicators were extracted from the study

    Green Up Pavement Rehabilitation Design Tool

    Get PDF
    While designers produce pavement rehabilitation recommendations every day, for projects of all sizes, most designers have little information on the environmental impact of their recommendations. This research developed a new decision tool, called the “Green Up Pavement Rehabilitation Design Tool,” to allow the comparison of different rehabilitation solutions in terms of greenhouse gas emissions and to encourage sustainable practices such as materials recycling and the use of permeable, cool, and quiet pavement surfaces. The project aligns with the major goal of California Senate Bill 1, which is “to address deferred maintenance on the state highway system and the local street and road system,” by providing a rehabilitation strategy selection tool as well as an educational tool to promote sustainable pavement practices. The Green Up graphic and the overall methodology were finalized in consultation with representatives of the portland cement concrete and asphalt industries in California. For designers interested in learning more, the tool includes fact sheets about sustainable pavement rehabilitation strategies and links to additional online resources

    Performance Evaluation of Open Graded Base Course with Doweled and Non-Doweled Transverse Joints

    Get PDF
    The objectives of this study were to investigate the performance of 20-year old doweled/non-doweled and dense-graded/permeable base test sections on three concrete pavement segments in Wisconsin: USH 18/151 in Iowa and Dane counties, STH 29 in Brown County, and USH 151 in Columbia and Dane Counties. Five pavement bases were placed including: dense graded, asphalt-stabilized permeable, cement-stabilized permeable, and untreated permeable having two gradation sizes. USH 18/151 test sections had similar performance (PDI) for doweled unsealed pavement on dense and permeable base. Distresses common to all segments included slight to moderate distressed joints/cracks and slight transverse faulting. Asphalt-stabilized permeable base had no slab breakup or surface distresses, however it measured a greater severity of distressed joints and cracks. Non-doweled sections having asphalt-stabilized permeable base and Transverse Inter Channel drains had better performance and ride than the other non-doweled sections. IRI was generally higher on non-doweled pavements, but many doweled sections had an equal roughness to non-doweled sections. Sealed non-doweled joints produced a better performing pavement, however, sealant did not appear to improve ride. STH 29 unsealed sections performed better than the median PDI for the sealed sections. The sealed doweled pavement did perform a little better than the non-doweled section, but the opposite occurred on the non-doweled sections. Sealed doweled joints had a smoother ride than the other combinations. USH 151 test sections found the finer-graded New Jersey permeable base had the smoothest ride when compared to other permeable sections. Asphalt-stabilized permeable base had the roughest ride, and unstabilized and cement-stabilized permeable bases had intermediate values. The average hydraulic conductivity for the unstabilized permeable base was 17,481 feet per day and there appears little variation due to doweling or joint sealant. Deflection load transfer results indicate expected high average values for the doweled sections and fair to poor values for the non-doweled sections. Slab support ratios indicate variable results based on base type and joint reinforcement/sealant. Life-cycle cost analysis found dense-graded base was the least cost among all base alternatives, with a total estimated present-worth life-cycle cost of $665,133 per roadway mile. Untreated and asphalt-stabilized permeable bases were more expensive by 13% and 27%, respectively. Other factors in selecting dense-graded base over permeable base include project drainage conditions set forth in the FDM guidelines an anticipated increase in pavement surface roughness

    Climate Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Roofs and Pavements. A Case Study at Sapienza University Campus

    Get PDF
    The progressively emerging concept of urban resilience to climate change highlights the importance of mitigation and adaptation measures, and the need to integrate urban climatology in the design process, in order to better understand the multiple effects of combined green and cool technologies for the transition to climate responsive and thermally comfortable urban open spaces. This study focuses the attention on selected mitigation and adaptation technologies; two renovation scenarios were designed and modeled according to the minimal intervention criterion. The study pays attention to the effect on surface temperature and physiological equivalent temperature (PET) of vegetation and high albedo materials characterizing the horizontal boundaries of the site. The Sapienza University campus, a historical site in Rome, is taken as a case study. These results highlight the importance of treed open spaces and the combination of permeable green pavements associated with cool roofs as the most effective strategy for the mitigation of summer heatwaves and the improvement of outdoor thermal comfort

    Stormwater-Pavement Interface in Cold Climates

    Get PDF
    This project relates to “managing stormwater runoff in cold climates” and addresses the feasibility of low-impact development at a regional demonstration site in eastern Washington. The studies relate to seven large permeable pavement systems. The findings for similar climates and soils are as follows: The draindown times for retention in Palouse or similar clay soils may handle many typical storms. On average, every square foot of a permeable pavement system installed also receives run-on from another square foot of impermeable pavement, doubling its impact on both stormwater quantity reduction and stormwater quality improvement. Most of the clogged sections on various applications were downslope of other areas. Permeable pavements installed in areas targeted for additional stormwater quantity control and quality improvement may be feasible. On average, the cleaning for installations is less frequent than annually. Power washing plus vacuuming appears to be an effective method for pervious concrete. Surface distress was usually where vehicles turned, or from placement activities. Preliminary studies on various surface treatments on pervious concrete show promise for added safety benefits under wintry conditions. Both detention-type and retention-type permeable pavement systems appear to have little negative impact on neighboring soils in the winter under the study conditions. However, further research is needed for different designs of retention-type systems to ensure that water volumes in the aggregate storage bed do not allow for sufficient water flow into neighboring soils that might result in ice lens formation or other negative impacts
    • …
    corecore