11,110 research outputs found

    The italian quaternary volcanism

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    The peninsular and insular Italy are punctuated by Quaternary volcanoes and their rocks constitute an important aliquot of the Italian Quaternary sedimentary successions. Also away from volcanoes themselves, volcanic ash layers are a common and frequent feature of the Quaternary records, which provide us with potential relevant stratigraphic and chronological markers at service of a wide array of the Quaternary science issues. In this paper, a broad representation of the Italian volcano logical community has joined to provide an updated comprehensive state of art of the Italian Quaternary volcanism. The eruptive history, style and dynamics and, in some cases, the hazard assessment of about thirty Quaternary volcanoes, from the north ernmost Mt. Amiata, in Tuscany, to the southernmost Pantelleria and Linosa, in Sicily Channel, are here reviewed in the light of the substantial improving of the methodological approaches and the overall knowledge achieved in the last decades in the vol canological field study. We hope that the present review can represent a useful and agile document summarising the knowledege on the Italian volcanism at the service of the Quaternary community operating in central Mediterranean area

    Report of the panel on volcanology, section 4

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    Two primary goals are identified as focal to NASA's research efforts in volcanology during the 1990s: to understand the eruption of lavas, gases, and aerosols from volcanoes, the dispersal of these materials on the Earth's surface and through the atmosphere, and the effects of these eruptions on the climate and environment; and to understand the physical processes that lead to the initiation of volcanic activity, that influence the styles of volcanic eruptions, and that dictate the morphology and evolution of volcanic landforms. Strategy and data requirements as well as research efforts are discussed

    THE ITALIAN QUATERNARY VOLCANISM

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    The peninsular and insular Italy are punctuated by Quaternary volcanoes and their rocks constitute an important aliquot of the Italian Quaternary sedimentary successions. Also away from volcanoes themselves, volcanic ash layers are a common and frequent feature of the Quaternary records, which provide us with potential relevant stratigraphic and chronological markers at service of a wide array of the Quaternary science issues. In this paper, a broad representation of the Italian volcano-logical community has joined to provide an updated comprehensive state of art of the Italian Quaternary volcanism. The eruptive history, style and dynamics and, in some cases, the hazard assessment of about thirty Quaternary volcanoes, from the north-ernmost Mt. Amiata, in Tuscany, to the southernmost Pantelleria and Linosa, in Sicily Channel, are here reviewed in the light of the substantial improving of the methodological approaches and the overall knowledge achieved in the last decades in the vol-canological field study. We hope that the present review can represent a useful and agile document summarising the knowledege on the Italian volcanism at the service of the Quaternary community operating in central Mediterranean area

    Volcanic rhythms : Sir William Hamilton's Love Affair with Vesuvius

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    Morphology of Lipari offshore (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea)

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    High-resolution multibeam bathymetry was recently collected around Lipari, the largest and most densely populated island of the Aeolian Archipelago (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea). The data were acquired within the context of marine geological studies performed in the area over the last 10 years. We present the first detailed morphological map of the Lipari offshore at 1:100,000 scale (Main Map). A rugged morphology characterizes the submarine portions of Lipari volcano, reflecting both volcanic and erosive-depositional processes. The volcanic features include cones, lava flows and bedrock outcrops. Erosive-depositional features include an insular shelf topped by submarine depositional terraces related to LateQuaternary sea-level fluctuations, as well as landslide scars, channelized features, fanshaped deposits and wavy bedforms. The different distribution of volcanic and erosivedepositional features on the various sectors of Lipari is mainly related to the older age of the western flank with respect to the eastern one. The map also provides insights for a first marine geohazard assessment of this active volcanic area

    Volcanoes muon imaging using Cherenkov telescopes

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    A detailed understanding of a volcano inner structure is one of the key-points for the volcanic hazards evaluation. To this aim, in the last decade, geophysical radiography techniques using cosmic muon particles have been proposed. By measuring the differential attenuation of the muon flux as a function of the amount of rock crossed along different directions, it is possible to determine the density distribution of the interior of a volcano. Up to now, a number of experiments have been based on the detection of the muon tracks crossing hodoscopes, made up of scintillators or nuclear emulsion planes. Using telescopes based on the atmospheric Cherenkov imaging technique, we propose a new approach to study the interior of volcanoes detecting the Cherenkov light produced by relativistic cosmic-ray muons that survive after crossing the volcano. The Cherenkov light produced along the muon path is imaged as a typical annular pattern containing all the essential information to reconstruct particle direction and energy. Our new approach offers the advantage of a negligible background and an improved spatial resolution. To test the feasibility of our new method, we have carried out simulations with a toy-model based on the geometrical parameters of ASTRI SST-2M, i.e. the imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope currently under installation onto the Etna volcano. Comparing the results of our simulations with previous experiments based on particle detectors, we gain at least a factor of 10 in sensitivity. The result of this study shows that we resolve an empty cylinder with a radius of about 100 m located inside a volcano in less than 4 days, which implies a limit on the magma velocity of 5 m/h.Comment: 21 pages, 21 figures, in press on Nuclear Inst. and Methods in Physics Research, A. Final version published online: 3-NOV-201

    Results of Skylab investigation over Italy

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    The author has identified the following significant results. Multispectral high resolution photography of S190A was successfully applied to the detection of paleoriverbeds in flat lands. Results of SL-3 mission were compared to those of LANDSAT for two regional geological surveys (linear structures) on the islands of Sicily and Sardinia. On Sicily, the seasonal conditions were unfavorable for Skylab while LANDSAT played a major role in discovering long, unknown lineaments of great interest for the geodynamics of the area. On Sardinia, owing to the vegetation type and to the geomorphic conditions, the Skylab imagery was successfully employed to describe the network of linears, both regional and local. Results can be used to study the relationship between linears, actual fracturing and the occurrence of mineral deposits

    Continental degassing of helium in an active tectonic setting (northern Italy): the role of seismicity

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    In order to investigate the variability of helium degassing in continental regions, its release from rocks and emission into the atmosphere, here we studied the degassing of volatiles in a seismically active region of northern Italy (MwMAX = 6) at the Nirano-Regnano mud volcanic system. The emitted gases in the study area are CH4–dominated and it is the carrier for helium (He) transfer through the crust. Carbon and He isotopes unequivocally indicate that crustal-derived fluids dominate these systems. An high-resolution 3-dimensional reconstruction of the gas reservoirs feeding the observed gas emissions at the surface permits to estimate the amount of He stored in the natural reservoirs. Our study demonstrated that the in-situ production of 4He in the crust and a long-lasting diffusion through the crust are not the main processes that rule the He degassing in the region. Furthermore, we demonstrated that micro-fracturation due to the field of stress that generates the local seismicity increases the release of He from the rocks and can sustain the excess of He in the natural reservoirs respect to the steady-state diffusive degassing. These results prove that (1) the transport of volatiles through the crust can be episodic as function of rock deformation and seismicity and (2) He can be used to highlight changes in the stress field and related earthquakes

    Fractures and lineaments of Sicily Island: Preliminary results on analog optical techniques

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    There are no author-identified significant results in this report
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