25,586 research outputs found

    A thin layer angiogenesis assay: a modified basement matrix assay for assessment of endothelial cell differentiation

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    BACKGROUND: Basement matrices such as Matrigel™ and Geltrex™ are used in a variety of cell culture assays of anchorage-dependent differentiation including endothelial cell tube formation assays. The volumes of matrix recommended for these assays (approximately 150 μl/cm(2)) are costly, limit working distances for microscopy, and require cell detachment for subsequent molecular analysis. Here we describe the development and validation of a thin-layer angiogenesis (TLA) assay for assessing the angiogenic potential of endothelial cells that overcomes these limitations. RESULTS: Geltrex™ basement matrix at 5 μl/cm(2) in 24-well (10 μl) or 96-well (2 μl) plates supports endothelial cell differentiation into tube-like structures in a comparable manner to the standard larger volumes of matrix. Since working distances are reduced, high-resolution single cell microscopy, including DIC and confocal imaging, can be used readily. Using MitoTracker dye we now demonstrate, for the first time, live mitochondrial dynamics and visualise the 3-dimensional network of mitochondria present in differentiated endothelial cells. Using a standard commercial total RNA extraction kit (Qiagen) we also show direct RNA extraction and RT-qPCR from differentiated endothelial cells without the need to initially detach cells from their supporting matrix. CONCLUSIONS: We present here a new thin-layer assay (TLA) for measuring the anchorage-dependent differentiation of endothelial cells into tube-like structures which retains all the characteristics of the traditional approach but with the added benefit of a greatly lowered cost and better compatibility with other techniques, including RT-qPCR and high-resolution microscopy. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12860-014-0041-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

    Lewis X antigen mediates adhesion of human breast carcinoma cells to activated endothelium. Possible involvement of the endothelial scavenger receptor C-Type lectin

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    Lewis x (Lex, CD15), also known as SSEA-1 (stage specific embryonic antigen-1), is a trisaccharide with the structure Galβ(1–4)Fucα(1–3)GlcNAc, which is expressed on glycoconjugates in human polymorphonuclear granulocytes and various tumors such as colon and breast carcinoma. We have investigated the role of Lex in the adhesion of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells and PMN to human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC) and the effects of two different anti-Lex mAbs (FC-2.15 and MCS-1) on this adhesion. We also analyzed the cytolysis of Lex+-cells induced by anti-Lex mAbs and complement when cells were adhered to the endothelium, and the effect of these antibodies on HUVEC. The results indicate that MCF-7 cells can bind to HUVEC, and that MCS-1 but not FC-2.15 mAb inhibit this interaction. Both mAbs can efficiently lyse MCF-7 cells bound to HUVEC in the presence of complement without damaging endothelial cells. We also found a Lex-dependent PMN interaction with HUVEC. Although both anti-Lex mAbs lysed PMN in suspension and adhered to HUVEC, PMN aggregation was only induced by mAb FC-2.15. Blotting studies revealed that the endothelial scavenger receptor C-type lectin (SRCL), which binds Lex-trisaccharide, interacts with specific glycoproteins of Mr␣∼␣28 kD and 10 kD from MCF-7 cells. The interaction between Lex+-cancer cells and vascular endothelium is a potential target for cancer treatment.Fil: Elola, Maria Teresa. Fundación Instituto Leloir; Argentina. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas; ArgentinaFil: Capurro, Mariana Isabel. University of Toronto; CanadáFil: Barrio, Maria Marcela. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas; Argentina. Fundación para la Investigación, Docencia y Prevención del Cáncer; ArgentinaFil: Coombs, Peter J.. Imperial College London; Reino UnidoFil: Taylor, Maureen E.. Imperial College London; Reino UnidoFil: Drickamer, Kurt. Imperial College London; Reino UnidoFil: Mordoh, Jose. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas; Argentina. Fundación para la Investigación, Docencia y Prevención del Cáncer; Argentin

    Pathogenetic role of tissue factor in graft-versus-host disease

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    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a serious complication after allogeneic stem cell transplantation, the mechanism of it is still not elucidated. Recent findings suggest that host endothelial cells are a target of alloreactive donor cytotoxic T lymphocytes in GVHD and tissue factor (TF) plays an important role not only in coagulation-inflammation cycle, but also in transplant immunology. We postulate TF expression in vascular endothelial cells(VEC) may play an pivotal role in the pathogenesis of GVHD. TF gene andprotein expression in target organs of GVHD in aGVHD mice was significantly elevated compared to that of controls as determined by real-time PCR and Western blotting. Allogeneic CD4^+^T cell and CD8^+^T cells enhanced TF, VCAM-1, TNF-[alpha], IFN-[gamma] and IL-6 expression in TNF-[alpha] prestimulated HUVECs compared to controls as determined by flowcytometry and real-time PCR. JNK and p38MAPK mediated allogeneic T cells-induced TF expression in HUVECs. These effects were largely prevented by monoclonal antibody against TF, SB203580 and SP600125. In concert, these data provide strong evidence that upregulated TF expression is related to tissue damage caused by GVHD, TF isthe key factor in GVHD mediated by endothelial cells and allogeneic T cells-induced TF and consecutive proinflammatory cytokines expression in VEC contribute to the pathogenesis of GVHD

    Phenolic metabolites of anthocyanins modulate mechanisms of endothelial function

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    Anthocyanins are reported to have vascular bioactivity, however their mechanisms of action are largely unknown. Evidence suggests that anthocyanins modulate endothelial function, potentially by increasing nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, or enhancing NO bioavailability. This study compared the activity of cyanidin-3-glucoside, its degradation product protocatechuic acid, and phase II metabolite, vanillic acid. Production of NO and superoxide and expression of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), NADPH oxidase (NOX), and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) were established in human vascular cell models. Nitric oxide levels were not modulated by the treatments, although eNOS was upregulated by cyanidin-3-glucoside, and superoxide production was decreased by both phenolic acids. Vanillic acid upregulated p22phox mRNA but did not alter NOX protein expression, although trends were observed for p47phox downregulation and HO-1 upregulation. Anthocyanin metabolites may therefore modulate vascular reactivity by inducing HO-1 and modulating NOX activity, resulting in reduced superoxide production and improved NO bioavailability

    Transient down-regulation of beta1 integrin subtypes on kidney carcinoma cells is induced by mechanical contact with endothelial cell membranes

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    Adhesion molecules of the integrin beta1 family are thought to be involved in the malignant progression renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Still, it is not clear how they contribute to this process. Since the hematogenous phase of tumour dissemination is the rate-limiting step in the metastatic process, we explored beta1 integrin alterations on several RCC cell lines (A498, Caki1, KTC26) before and after contacting vascular endothelium in a tumour-endothelium (HUVEC) co-culture assay. Notably, alpha2, alpha3 and alpha5 integrins became down-regulated immediately after the tumour cells attached to HUVEC, followed by re-expression shortly thereafter. Integrin down-regulation on RCC cells was caused by direct contact with endothelial cells, since the isolated endothelial membrane fragments but not the cell culture supernatant contributed to the observed effects. Integrin loss was accompanied by a reduced focal adhesion kinase (FAK) expression, FAK activity and diminished binding of tumour cells to matrix proteins. Furthermore, intracellular signalling proteins RCC cells were altered in the presence of HUVEC membrane fragments, in particular 14-3-3 epsilon, ERK2, PKCdelta, PKCepsilon and RACK1, which are involved in regulating tumour cell motility. We, therefore, speculate that contact of RCC cells with the vascular endothelium converts integrin-dependent adhesion to integrin-independent cell movement. The process of dynamic integrin regulation may be an important part in tumour cell migration strategy, switching the cells from being adhesive to becoming motile and invasive

    Magnetofection potentiates gene delivery to cultured endothelial cells

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    Modification of cellular functions by overexpression of genes is increasingly practised for research of signalling pathways, but restricted by limitations of low efficiency. We investigated whether the novel technique of magnetofection (MF) could enhance gene transfer to cultured primary endothelial cells. MF of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) increased transfection efficiency of a luciferase reporter gene up to 360-fold compared to various conventional transfection systems. In contrast, there was only an up to 1.6-fold increase in toxicity caused by MF suggesting that the advantages of MF outbalanced the increase in toxicity. MF efficiently increased transfection efficiency using several commercially available cationic lipid transfection reagents and polyethyleneimine (PEI). Using PEI, even confluent HUVEC could be efficiently transfected to express luciferase activity. Using a green fluorescent protein vector maximum percentages of transfected cells amounted up to 38.7% while PEI without MF resulted in only 1.3% transfected cells. Likewise, in porcine aortic endothelial cells MF increased expression of a luciferase or beta-galactosidase reporter, reaching an efficiency of 37.5% of cells. MF is an effective tool for pDNA transfection of endothelial cells allowing high efficiencies. It may be of great use for investigating protein function in cell culture experiments

    Class II Phosphoinositide 3-Kinases Contribute to Endothelial Cells Morphogenesis

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    PMCID: PMC3539993This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited

    Dose-dependent effects of Allopurinol on human foreskin fibroblast cell and human umbilical vein endothelial cell under hypoxia

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    Allopurinol, an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase, has been used in clinical trials of patients with cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease. These are two pathologies with extensive links to hypoxia and activation of the transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) family. Here we analysed the effects of allopurinol treatment in two different cellular models, and their response to hypoxia. We explored the dose-dependent effect of allopurinol on Human Foreskin Fibroblasts (HFF) and Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC) under hypoxia and normoxia. Under normoxia and hypoxia, high dose allopurinol reduced the accumulation of HIF-1α protein in HFF and HUVEC cells. Allopurinol had only marginal effects on HIF-1α mRNA level in both cellular systems. Interestingly, allopurinol effects over the HIF system were independent of prolyl-hydroxylase activity. Finally, allopurinol treatment reduced angiogenesis traits in HUVEC cells in an in vitro model. Taken together these results indicate that high doses of allopurinol inhibits the HIF system and pro-angiogenic traits in cells

    Mechanisms of endothelial cell dysfunction in cystic fibrosis

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    Although cystic fibrosis (CF) patients exhibit signs of endothelial perturbation, the functions of the cystic fibrosis conductance regulator (CFTR) in vascular endothelial cells (EC) are poorly defined. We sought to uncover biological activities of endothelial CFTR, relevant for vascular homeostasis and inflammation. We examined cells from human umbilical cords (HUVEC) and pulmonary artery isolated from non-cystic fibrosis (PAEC) and CF human lungs (CF-PAEC), under static conditions or physiological shear. CFTR activity, clearly detected in HUVEC and PAEC, was markedly reduced in CF-PAEC. CFTR blockade increased endothelial permeability to macromolecules and reduced trans‑endothelial electrical resistance (TEER). Consistent with this, CF-PAEC displayed lower TEER compared to PAEC. Under shear, CFTR blockade reduced VE-cadherin and p120 catenin membrane expression and triggered the formation of paxillin- and vinculin-enriched membrane blebs that evolved in shrinking of the cell body and disruption of cell-cell contacts. These changes were accompanied by enhanced release of microvesicles, which displayed reduced capability to stimulate proliferation in recipient EC. CFTR blockade also suppressed insulin-induced NO generation by EC, likely by inhibiting eNOS and AKT phosphorylation, whereas it enhanced IL-8 release. Remarkably, phosphodiesterase inhibitors in combination with a β2 adrenergic receptor agonist corrected functional and morphological changes triggered by CFTR dysfunction in EC. Our results uncover regulatory functions of CFTR in EC, suggesting a physiological role of CFTR in the maintenance EC homeostasis and its involvement in pathogenetic aspects of CF. Moreover, our findings open avenues for novel pharmacology to control endothelial dysfunction and its consequences in CF
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