102,872 research outputs found

    A configural dominant account of contextual cueing : configural cues are stronger than colour cues

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    Previous work has shown that reaction times to find a target in displays that have been repeated are faster than those for displays that have never been seen before. This learning effect, termed “contextual cueing” (CC), has been shown using contexts such as the configuration of the distractors in the display and the background colour. However, it is not clear how these two contexts interact to facilitate search. We investigated this here by comparing the strengths of these two cues when they appeared together. In Experiment 1, participants searched for a target that was cued by both colour and distractor configural cues, compared with when the target was only predicted by configural information. The results showed that the addition of a colour cue did not increase contextual cueing. In Experiment 2, participants searched for a target that was cued by both colour and distractor configuration compared with when the target was only cued by colour. The results showed that adding a predictive configural cue led to a stronger CC benefit. Experiments 3 and 4 tested the disruptive effects of removing either a learned colour cue or a learned configural cue and whether there was cue competition when colour and configural cues were presented together. Removing the configural cue was more disruptive to CC than removing colour, and configural learning was shown to overshadow the learning of colour cues. The data support a configural dominant account of CC, where configural cues act as the stronger cue in comparison to colour when they are presented together

    Stimulus property effects on cue competition and temporal estimates during causal learning

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    PhD ThesisLearning and timing models have developed along different trajectories within psychology; however, more recent theorising has speculated that both of these phenomena might be modelled within a single theoretical model. While such an approach has merit, the majority of studies into how learning and timing interact have employed nonhuman subjects. Consequently, little is known about how these core psychological processes might interact in humans; this body of experiments was, conducted in order to investigate this issue. Experiments were run to test the hypothesis that cue competition attenuates the ability of participants to estimate a stimulus’ temporal parameters. By studying whether temporal estimates differed between cues in conditions in which blocking and overshadowing was predicted to be weaker or stronger, it could be determined whether time and association were encoded together. In a series of causal learning experiments participants were trained with a cue competition paradigm. On test both cue competition and temporal estimates were examined. The results showed that participant instructions influenced cue competition and that cue properties could influence blocking and overshadowing in specific cases. Temporal estimates made by participants were influenced by cue properties: less accurate estimates of target cue duration were made in several experiments, and temporal estimates between groups varied when blocking and overshadowing were constant. Existing associative learning theories could predict blocking and overshadowing, but could not predict the temporal results. Timing models, for example, the SET model, failed to predict temporal results. To conclude, the results suggest that timing is not encoded as part of the association.Newcastle Universit

    THE SOURCE OF LIST STRENGTH EFFECT WITHIN THE RETRIEVING EFFECTIVELY FROM MEMORY FRAMEWORK: THE LEVEL OF COMPETITION

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    To study episodic memory in a laboratory, we study interference within a list of stimuli. With list strength paradigm, we study how such interference is affected by how well stimuli are encoded, and the encoding strength of other items in the list. A stimulus can be weak or strong, and it can be in a pure list, composed of all weak or all strong stimuli, or a mixed list, composed of both weak and strong stimuli. A list strength effect (LSE) refers to the interaction between stimulus strength and list type. In free recall, where the cue used at test is only context, we have consistently observed a LSE. Yet, in cued recall, where the cue is made of item, we have consistently observed a null LSE. Thus, we attributed the source of LSE to the type of cue used at retrieval. Based on REM, this framing is potentially misleading. It is not the type of cue (context or item) that is critical, but the level of competition. Typical experiments have confounded these two factors because they have manipulated item to create a low level of competition within a list, while context to create a high level of competition. Therefore, in this study, we manipulated the level of competition (between-subject) and the type of cue (within-subject) simultaneously on the list strength paradigm. Data shows LSE was determined by the level of competition, not the type of cue probing memory at test. Fitting REM to the data confirms this statement. Nevertheless, whether memory was cued with context or item affected recall performance differently

    How You Get There From Here:Interaction of Visual Landmarks and Path Integration in Human Navigation

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    How do people combine their sense of direction with their use of visual landmarks during navigation? Cue-integration theory predicts that such cues will be optimally integrated to reduce variability, whereas cue-competition theory predicts that one cue will dominate the response direction. We tested these theories by measuring both accuracy and variability in a homing task while manipulating information about path integration and visual landmarks. We found that the two cues were near-optimally integrated to reduce variability, even when landmarks were shifted up to 90°. Yet the homing direction was dominated by a single cue, which switched from landmarks to path integration when landmark shifts were greater than 90°. These findings suggest that cue integration and cue competition govern different aspects of the homing response: Cues are integrated to reduce response variability but compete to determine the response direction. The results are remarkably similar to data on animal navigation, which implies that visual landmarks reset the orientation, but not the precision, of the path-integration system

    Cue Competition in Human Incidental Learning

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    McLaren, I. P., Jones, F. W., McLaren, R. and Yeates, F. (2013) Cue competition in human incidental learning. In: Reinforcement Learning and Decision Making Meeting 2013, 25th-27th October, Princeton, New Jersey, USA .There is a question as to whether cue competition effects can be observed in incidental learning paradigms in humans. Some authors have reported that cue competition is not observed, and that previous demonstrations of cue competition have relied on explicit awareness of the task in hand. This would imply that these effects are more likely to be the product of cognitive inference than associative learning. We addressed this question by using two paradigms previously shown to produce associative learning under incidental conditions. One was a standard SRT task in which the preceding two trials of a run of three predicted the third 2/3 of the time, and the other was based on another predictive cue, a colored square, which could also stochastically predict the next response required.We have demonstrated in other studies that both cues would support learning under incidental conditions in the absence of any verbalisable knowledge of the rules involved. The question was to what extent would these two cues compete if run concurrently, as assayed by their ability to make the next response faster and more accurate than controls? We assessed this by comparing a dual cue group to a color only control and a sequence only control. Our results showed that all three groups learned, but that during a test phase where each cue could be assessed independently, the dual group showed a marked decline in performance relative to the color control, and very similar performance to the sequence control. We interpret this as evidence for overshadowing occurring between the two predictive cues in the dual group, such that when combined their performance would be equivalent or superior to either control, but when assessed independently, the color cue actually has a weaker association to the outcome than the equivalent cue in the control group. We conclude that the sequence cues overshadowed the color cues in this task, and discuss possible theoretical accounts of this phenomenon

    Learning in a changing environment

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    Multiple cue probability learning studies have typically focused on stationary environments. We present three experiments investigating learning in changing environments. A fine-grained analysis of the learning dynamics shows that participants were responsive to both abrupt and gradual changes in cue-outcome relations. We found no evidence that participants adapted to these types of change in qualitatively different ways. Also, in contrast to earlier claims that these tasks are learned implicitly, participants showed good insight into what they learned. By fitting formal learning models, we investigated whether participants learned global functional relationships or made localized predictions from similar experienced exemplars. Both a local (the Associative Learning Model) and a global learning model (the novel Bayesian Linear Filter) fitted the data of the first two experiments. However, the results of Experiment 3, which was specifically designed to discriminate between local and global learning models, provided more support for global learning models. Finally, we present a novel model to account for the cue competition effects found in previous research and displayed by some of our participants

    Cue Competition in Human Associative Learning

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    CogSci 2013 - 35th annual meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, Berlin, Germany, 31 July - 3 August 2013There is a question as to whether cue competition effects can be observed in incidental learning paradigms in humans. The SRT and other location prediction tasks fall into that group often considered to show associative learning under incidental conditions. We used a standard SRT task in which the preceding two trials of a run of three predicted the third 2/3 of the time, and added another predictive cue, a colored square, which could also stochastically predict the next response required. The question was to what extent would these two cues compete in terms of incidental learning to make the next response faster and more accurate than controls? We assessed this by comparing the dual cue group to a color only control and a sequence only control. Our results showed that all three groups learned, and that the dual group learned about both cues at least as well as the individual controls, but that when switched to a test phase where each cue could be assessed independently, the dual group showed a marked decline in performance relative to the color control. We interpret this as evidence for overshadowing occurring between the two predictive cues in the dual group, such that when combined their performance is equivalent or superior to either control, but when assessed independently, the color cue actually has a weaker association to the outcome than the equivalent cue in the control group.This research was supported by an ESRC grant to IPL McLaren and FW Jone

    Cue Competition as a Retrieval Deficit

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    Four experiments using rats as subjects investigated the claim of Williams (1996) that cue competition results from an associative acquisition deficit, rather than a performance deficit. In Experiment 1, extinction of an overshadowing stimulus following overshadowing treatment increased responding to the overshadowed stimulus, thereby replicating prior observations with new parameters. In Experiment 2, an overshadowed stimulus failed to support second-order conditioning unless the overshadowing stimulus received prior extinction treatment. Experiment 3 replicated the recovery from overshadowing effect seen in Experiment 1 using a sensory preconditioning procedure. Most important, in Experiment 4 an overshadowed stimulus failed to block conditioned responding to a novel CS, but blocking by the overshadowed cue was observed following posttraining extinction of the overshadowing stimulus. These results, as well as those of Williams, are discussed in terms of traditional and more recent acquisition-focused models as well as an extension of the comparator hypothesis ( Denniston, Savastano, & Miller, 2001)

    Retrieval-induced forgetting in kindergartners: Evaluating the inhibitory account

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    Repeatedly retrieving information from memory can induce forgetting of related, un-retrieved information below baseline, an effect termed retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF; Anderson, Bjork & Bjork, 1994). The inhibitory account of RIF (e.g., Anderson, 2003) has received extensive support in the literature, especially through studies designed to empirically test inhibitory-based principles of RIF in adults. These principles include cue independence (RIF persists in the absence of the cue used during practice), interference/competition dependence (inhibition serves to resolve interference/competition between the cue and associated items during practice), strength independence (RIF is not strictly due to a target strengthening and competitor forgetting trade-off), retrieval-specificity (retrieval attempts are required to create the interference/ competition responsible for triggering inhibition), and output interference independence (RIF persists when output interference is controlled). However, competition-based explanations do not require an inhibitory component and can also account for many adult RIF findings. Very little RIF research has examined young children’s memory, whose immature memory systems might not be capable of demonstrating an inhibitory-driven effect. This dissertation filled this gap in the literature by thoroughly evaluating the inhibitory account of RIF in kindergartners (Ks). Two groups of Ks completed two RIF tasks that tested cue independence, competition/interference dependence, and strength independence in the first experiment, and retrieval-specificity, output interference independence, and strength-independence again in the second experiment. When a novel cue was used to test final memory (Experiment 1), and when a cue-free recognition test was used that controlled for output interference (Experiment 2), no RIF was found. These results, along with correlational evidence of strength dependence, favour a competition-based account of Ks’ RIF. Implications for inhibition theory and the potential development of RIF are discussed
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