12,608 research outputs found

    FILOGEOGRAFIJA I TAKSONOMIJA VRSTE Dianthus sylvestris WULFEN s.l. NA BALKANSKOM POLUOTOKU

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    The Balkan Peninsula is one of the diversity centres for the morphologically highly variable and taxonomically inconsistently treated Dianthus sylvestris (Caryophyllaceae). In this thesis, an array of methods ranging from nomenclatural revision and morphometrics, following with phylogeographic methods (RADseq) and environmental niche analyses, to genome size estimates, were combined to explore the intraspecific relationships within Balkan populations of D. sylvestris, to discuss phylogeographic and historical processes that contributed to the observed genetic divergence patterns in this species, and to propose a sensible taxonomic solution. Patterns of genetic variation and species distribution models (SDM) suggested that D. sylvestris in the Balkan Peninsula survived the Pleistocene glaciations in two separate glacial refugia located along the eastern Adriatic coast. Two genetic groups with the split occurring around the Neretva River valley have been identified. These groups correspond to the two discerned morphological entities, the north-western and the south-eastern group of populations, distinct by the epicalyx scales shape, calyx teeth incision and petal denticulation. Migration analyses revealed relatively high rates of gene flow within each of the two groups, whereas there was almost no gene flow between them. The genetic differentiation did not support the current taxonomy, and the morphometric analyses revealed a continuous variability of quantitative morphological characters and an absence of clear-cut qualitative morphological differences among the subspecies. However, there was an obvious discontinuity in both morphological and genetic clines, therefore a taxonomic subspecies level was attributed to the two resulting groups, D. sylvestris subsp. sylvestris in the north and D. sylvestris subsp. bertisceus in the south. The thermophilous and earlier-flowering D. sylvestris subsp. tergestinus formed aBalkanski poluotok jedno je od sredi┼íta raznolikosti morfolo┼íki vrlo varijabilne i taksonomski nedosljedno tretirane vrste Dianthus sylvestris (Caryophyllaceae). U sklopu ove disertacije kori┼íten je niz metoda, od nomenklaturne revizije i morfometrije, preko filogeografskih metoda (RADseq) i analiza ekolo┼íkih ni┼ía, do procjene veli─Źine genoma, kako bi se istra┼żili unutarvrsni odnosi balkanskih populacija vrste D. sylvestris i utvrdili mogu─çi filogeografski i povijesni procesi koji su pridonijeli uo─Źenim uzorcima genetske divergencije ove vrste, te kako bi se predlo┼żilo novo taksonomsko rje┼íenje. Obrasci genetske varijabilnosti i modeli povoljnosti stani┼íta (SDM) upu─çuju da je vrsta D. sylvestris na Balkanskom poluotoku pre┼żivjela pleistocenske glacijacije u dva odvojena glacijalna refugija smje┼ítena du┼ż isto─Źne obale Jadranskog mora. Identificirane su dvije genetske skupine, gdje se granica izme─Ĺu njih nalazi oko doline rijeke Neretve. Ove skupine odgovaraju dvjema uo─Źenim morfolo┼íkim entitetima, sjeverozapadnoj i jugoisto─Źnoj skupini populacija, koje se razlikuju po obliku ljuski epikaliksa, urezu zubaca ─Źa┼íke i nazubljenosti latice. Migracijske analize pokazale su relativno visoke stope protoka gena unutar svake od dviju skupina, dok izme─Ĺu njih protoka gena gotovo nije bilo. Genetska diferencijacija nije u skladu s trenuta─Źnom taksonomijom, a morfometrijske analize pokazale su kontinuiranu varijabilnost kvantitativnih morfolo┼íkih osobina i odsutnost jasnih kvalitativnih morfolo┼íkih razlika izme─Ĺu podvrsta. Me─Ĺutim, postoji jedan o─Źiti diskontinuitet u morfolo┼íkom i genetskom gradijentu, stoga je taksonomski status podvrste pripisan dvjema skupinama populacija, D. sylvestris subsp. sylvestris na sjeveru i D. sylvestris subsp. bertisceus na jugu. Termofilni i ranije cvjetaju─çi D. sylvestris subsp. tergestinus tvori zasebnu evolucijsku liniju te je za ovu svojtu predlo┼żen novi taksonomski tretman na razini vrste

    Tin isotope analysis of tin ore deposits in Europe and Central Asia in view of the tin provenance in archaeological metal objects

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    The aim of this work is to establish an overview of the tin isotope ratios of cassiterite and stannite from various mineralized regions in Europe, the Mediterranean and Central Asia in order to assess the possibility to geochemically discriminate tin ore deposits, which could have been exploited in ancient times. The motivation for this study was to eventually relate the tin found in ancient bronze objects to specific tin ore deposits and thus to clarify the origin and distribution of the tin bronze technology in the Bronze Age of the so-called Old World. For this purpose, we determined 413 primary and secondary cassiterite and stannite samples from the major tin provinces in SW England and Ireland, the Saxonian-Bohemian province, the Iberian Peninsula, France, Italy, Serbia, Egypt and Central Asia. The tin isotope compositions were analysed in solution with a multi-collector inductive-coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) in the Curt-Engelhorn-Zentrum Arch├Ąometrie in Mannheim. The samples mainly derive from granitic pegmatites and hydrothermal vein mineralizations of tin ore deposits associated with granite complexes in the Variscan and Asian fold belts. Overall, the isotope ratios in primary and secondary cassiterites are highly variable and range from ╬┤124Sn/120Sn -0.82 to 0.85 ÔÇ░. This variation is observed in the tin ore samples from SW England which have an average ╬┤124Sn/120Sn of 0.10 ┬▒ 0.59 ÔÇ░ (2SD). Among the tin provinces of the Variscan fold belt in Europe those of SW England and the Saxonian-Bohemian province (╬┤124Sn/120Sn = 0.12 ÔÇ░ ┬▒ 0.37) show the largest variations but the ranges of isotope ratios in both regions overlap to a large extent. Despite the large overlap, cassiterite from Spain (╬┤124Sn/120Sn = -0.07 ÔÇ░ ┬▒ 0.35) and France (╬┤124Sn/120Sn = -0.005 ÔÇ░ ┬▒ 0.31) tend to have on average lighter isotopic compositions than SW England, the Saxonian-Bohemian province or Portugal (╬┤124Sn/120Sn = 0.07 ÔÇ░ ┬▒ 0.40). However, the stannite samples from SW England and the Saxonian-Bohemian province have significantly lighter isotope ratios than the associated cassiterites. The tin ores from Central Asia exhibit the largest total variation of 1.94 ÔÇ░ ranging from -1.27 to 0.67 ÔÇ░ for ╬┤124Sn/120Sn. This extent of fractionation is observed in cassiterites from Afghanistan and Uzbekistan. Afghanistan with its pegmatitic cassiterite has the lightest isotopic composition of all investigated areas with -0.38 ┬▒ 0.84 ÔÇ░ for ╬┤124Sn/120Sn and, therefore, stands out as an identifiable source. Similar to the European stannites, the Asian stannites also have significantly lighter isotope compositions. Because of the large overlap and the highly variable isotope composition of cassiterites from all tin provinces a clearcut discrimination based on tin isotope ratios is difficult. But on a more detailed scale within each tin province it is possible to distinguish several mining or granite areas by their Sn isotope composition. However, it is also difficult to distinguish between different mineralization types

    IMPACT OF WINTER SAVORY EXTRACT (SATUREJA MONTANA L. (LAMIACEAE)) ON HYPERGLYCEMIA AND HYPERLIPIDEMIA IN WISTAR RATS

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    Rtanjski ─Źaj, Satureja montana L. ima ┼íiroku upotrebu u mnogim delovima sveta, koristi se kao kulinarska biljka i u tradicionalnoj medicini za le─Źenje ili ubla┼żavanje razli─Źitih zdravstvenih simptoma. Me─Ĺutim, brojne studije su pokazale da biljka ima farmakolo┼íki potencijal da se upotrebljava i kao antibakterijski, antidijabetesni, anti-HIV i antiproliferativni lek. Farmakolo┼íki efekti rtanjskog ─Źaja mogu se pripisati prisustvu fitohemikalija poput flavonoida, sterola, tanina i etarskih ulja. Fenolna jedinjenja su uglavnom odgovorna za antioksidativnu aktivnost biljke Satureja montana L. U ovom istra┼żivanju cilj je bio utvr─Ĺivanje uticaja ekstrakta biljke Satureja montana L. na parametre kao ┼íto su glikemija, status lipida i biohemijski parametri, zatim na indikatore koji ukazuju na funkciju jetre i bubrega u serumu zdravih, dijabeti─Źnih pacova i pacova koji su bili na ishrani oboga─çenoj mastima, kao i de se ispita uticaj na pokazatelje oksidativnog stresa kod ┼żivotinja izlo┼żenih toksi─Źnoj dozi paracetamola. Za odre─Ĺivanje hipoglikemijskog i antihiperlipidemijskog dejstva biljke Satureja montana L., laboratorijski pacovi soja WISTAR su podeljeni u 8 grupa, u grupama koje su kori┼í─çene za odre─Ĺivanje hipoglikemijskog potencijala dijabetes je indukovan streptozotocino nakon ─Źega su ┼żivotinje per os 28 dana, tretirane fiziolo┼íkim rastvorom, metforminom 100 mg/kg, ekstraktom rtanjskog ─Źaja 500 mg/kg i njihovom kombinacijom. Za ispitivanje antihiperlipidemijskog efekta ┼żivotinje su bile na ishrani oboga─çenoj mastima i fiziolo┼íkim rastvorom, simvastatinom 10 mg/kg, ekstraktom rtanjskog ─Źaja 500 mg/kg i njihovom kombinacijom. Za odre─Ĺivanje antioksidativnog potencijala biljke Satureja montana L. ┼żivotinje su podeljene u ─Źetiri grupe i 7 dana su tretirane ekstraktom rtanjskog ─Źaja i fiziolo┼íkim rastvorom. Nakon toga, pacovi su bili izlo┼żeni toksi─Źnoj dozi paracetamola. U ┼żivotinjskom serumu odre─Ĺivani su biohemijski parametri, koncentracija lipida i parametri funkcije bubrega i jetre. Odre─Ĺivanje aktivnosti lipidne peroksidacije i enzima antioksidativne za┼ítite u homogenatima jetre eksperimentalnih ┼żivotinja, nakon primene toksi─Źne doze paracetamola, je ispitivano ex vivo. In vitro ispitivanja su vr┼íena sa ekstraktima dobijenim rastvaranjem u razli─Źitim rastvara─Źima. Ispitivanja antioksidativne aktivnosti, kao i ukupni nivoi fenola i flavonoida, odre─Ĺeni su spektrofotometrijskom metodom. Kod ┼żivotinja sa indukovanim dijabetesom 28-dnevni tretman ekstraktom Satureja montana L. u pore─Ĺenju sa kontrolom grupom dijabeti─Źnih ┼żivotinja prouzrokovao je statisti─Źki zna─Źajno smanjenje glukoze. Na kraju studije, u grupi koja je primala ekstrakt Satureja montana L., uo─Źene su statisti─Źki zna─Źajno ni┼że vrednosti triglicerida u odnosu na kontrolnu dijabeti─Źnu grupu. Na druge parametre lipidnog statusa, ispitivani ekstrakt nije pokazao zna─Źajne efekte. Kod ┼żivotinja ─Źiju smo ishranu obogatili mastima primenom ekstrakta Satureja montana L. do┼ílo je do statisti─Źki zna─Źajnog sni┼żavanja LDL holesterola u serumu, u odnosu na kontrolnu grupu koja je bila na isharni oboga─çenoj mastima. Vrednosti parametara pokazatelja funkcije bubrega i jetre: AST, urea, kreatinin i mokra─çna kiselina bile su zna─Źajno ni┼że u grupi tretiranoj ekstraktom Satureja montana L. u odnosu na kontrolnu grupu koja je bila na ishrani oboga─çenoj mastima. Pretretman ┼żivotinja biljnim ekstraktom pre primene toksi─Źne doze paracetamola zna─Źajno je smanjio aktivnost alkalne fosfataze, koncentraciju direktnog bilirubina i kreatinina u serumu u odnosu na grupu tretiranu fiziolo┼íkim rastvorom i pojedina─Źnom dozom paracetamola. Aktivnost lipidne peroksidaze bila je zna─Źajno ve─ça kod ┼żivotinja koje su tretirane fiziolo┼íkim rastvorom u pore─Ĺenju sa tretmanom ekstraktom Satureja montana L., pre toksi─Źne doza paracetamola. Pored toga, smanjen je broj inflamatornih ─çelija zajedno sa aktivno┼í─çu enzima CIP2E1 kod ┼żivotinja koje su prethodno tretirane ekstraktom Satureja montana L. Rezultati ovih istra┼żivanja pokazali su hipoglikemijski potencijal ekstrakta Satureja montana L. kod ┼żivotinja sa indukovanim dijabetesom. Pretretman ekstraktom Satureja montana L. pre primene toksi─Źne doze paracetamola, pokazao je potencijal hepatoprotektivnog, antiinflamatornog i antioksidativnog dejstva. Tako─Ĺe, PCA analiza je pokazala da veliki uticaj na antioksidativni efekat imaju medijumi kori┼í─çeni za ekstrakciju.Satureja montana L. is widely used as culinary herb and in traditional medicine for the treatment or relief of various common health symptoms in many parts of the world. However, numerous studies have shown that it has pharmacological potential to be used as antibacterial drug, antidiabetic, anti-HIV and antiproliferative drug. Its pharmacological effects can be attributed to the presence of phytochemicals like flavonoids, sterols, tannins and essential oils. Phenolic compounds are mostly responsible for the anti-oxidative activity of Satureja montana L. In this research, the aim was to determine the influence of Satureja montana L. extract on glycemia, lipid status and biochemical parameters, indicators of liver and kidney function in the serum of healthy and diabetic rats and rats fed with high fat diet, as well as to examine it influence on the parameters of oxidative stress in animals exposed to the toxic dose of paracetamol. For determination of hypoglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effect of Satureja montana L., Wistar laboratory rats were divided into 8 groups, in groups used to determine hypoglycemic potential diabetes was induced by streptozotocin and after that, animals were treated for 28 days per os with saline solution, metformin 100 mg/kg, Satureja montana extract 500 mg/kg and their combination. For examination of hypolipidemic effect animals were treated with high fat diet and saline solution, simvastatin 10 mg/kg, Satureja montana L. extract 500 mg/kg and their combination. For determination of antioxidant potential of Satureja montana L. animals were divided into four groups and winter savory extract and saline solution were given them orally for 7 days. After that, rats were exposed to the toxic dose of paracetamol. Biochemical parameters, the lipids concentration and parameters of the kidney and liver function, were determined in animal serum. Ex vivo analyses included the determination of lipid peroxidation activity and the activity of antioxidant protection enzymes in liver homogenates of the test animals, after administration of a toxic dose of paracetamol. In vitro analyses were performed with extracts obtained with different solvents. Antioxidant activity tests as well as total phenolic and flavonoid content, were determined spectrophotometrically. In diabetic animals, 28 days treatment with Satureja montana L. extract brought to statistically significant decrease of glucose comparing to the control. Statistically significantly lower TG values were observed in the group that received Satureja montana L. extract compared to the control diabetic group, at the end of the study. On the other parameter of lipid status, the examined extract did not show significance effects. In animals fed with food enriched with fats, application of Satureja montana L. extract brought to statistically significant decrease of LDL cholesterol, relative to the control group fed with food enriched with fats. Concentration of parameters of the kidney and liver function: AST, urea, creatinine, and uric acid were significantly lower in the group treated with Satureja montana L. extract in comparison to the control group fed with food enriched with fats. Pre-treatment of animals with herbal extracts before application of the toxic dose of paracetamol significantly decreased alkaline phosphatase activity, concentration of direct bilirubin and creatinine in the serum relative to the group treated with saline solution and single dose of paracetamol. The activity of lipid peroxidation was significantly higher in animals that were treated with saline solution compared with Satureja montana L. extract, before the toxic doses of paracetamol. In addition, in animals pretreated with Satureja montana L. extract, the number of inflammatory cells is decreased along with the activity of CYP2E1 enzymes. The results of these studies showed hypoglycemic potential of Satureja montana L. extract in animals with induced diabetes. Pretreatment with Satureja montana L. extract prior to the administration of the toxic dose of paracetamol has shown potential of hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effect. Also, PCA analyses showed that the extraction mediums had a large influence on the antioxidative effect

    Genetic diversity of earthworms (Oligochaeta, Annelida) genera Octodrilus Omodeo, 1956 and Octodriloides Zicsi, 1986 in Croatia

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    Hrvatska je raznolika vrstama gujavica, a teritorij Hrvatske kao dio Balkanskog poluotoka smatra se jednim od centara divergencije vrsta rodova Octodrilus i Octodriloides. Dosad je u Hrvatskoj zabilje┼żeno 15 vrsta roda Octodrilus i 5 vrsta roda Octodriloides. Istra┼żivanje je provedeno u svrhu utvr─Ĺivanja genske raznolikosti i raznolikosti vrsta spomenutih rodova DNA barkodiranjem 177 uzoraka s 77 lokaliteta ┼íirom Hrvatske. Iz tkiva uzoraka izolirao sam, umno┼żio i poslao na sekvenciranje sekvence COI regije mtDNA, a upotrebom ra─Źunalnih programa SEQUENCHER (4.1.4.) i MEGA-X sekvence sam sravnio i obradio. Uz malobrojne, javno dostupne sekvence konstruirao sam filogenetsko stablo prema metodi najve─çe vjerojatnosti, pomo─çu kojeg sam izdvojio ukupno 28 linija. Linije sam svrstao u 9 vrsta roda Octodrilus i 3 vrste roda Octodriloides. 3 linije roda Octodrilus zbog specifi─Źnosti u gra─Ĺi ili juvenilnog stadija primjeraka nisu svrstane u opisane vrste. 5 vrsta ─Źini kompleks od najmanje dvije linije sa zna─Źajnim genskim udaljenostima. Istra┼żivanje je pokazalo i prednost odre─Ĺivanja vrsta gujavica molekularnim metodama u odnosu na odre─Ĺivanje vrsta prema gra─Ĺi tijela koje je kod gujavica vrlo slo┼żeno. Potrebno je provesti istra┼żivanja na daleko ve─çem broju uzoraka kako bi se molekularno-filogenetskim metodama detektirale preostale opisane vrste na podru─Źju Hrvatske i kako bi se usporedbom s rezultatima ovog istra┼żivanja odredio njihov filogenetski polo┼żaj.Croatia is diverse with earthworm species and the Croatian territory, as part of Balkan Peninsula, is considered to be one of the divergency centers of genera Octodrilus and Octodriloides. So far, 15 species of the genera Octodrilus and 5 species of the genera Octodriloides have been recorded in Croatia. The research was conducted in order to determine the genetic and species diversity of the mentioned generas by DNA barcoding 177 samples from 77 localities throughout Croatia. The COI region from mtDNA was isolated, amplified and sequenced from the sampleÔÇÖs tissue. Using the SEQUENCHER (4.1.4) and MEGA-X computer programs, the sequences were aligned and processed and a phylogenetic tree was constructed according to the maximum-likelihood method. A total number of 28 lineages were singled out from a tree and classified to 9 species of the genera Octodrilus and 3 species of the genera Octodriloides. 3 lineages of the genera Octodrilus were not classified to described species due to specificity in structure or juvenile stage of samples. 5 species form a complex of at least two lineages with significant genetic distances. The research also showed the advantage of determining earthworm species by molecular methods instead of determination according to morphology and anatomy, which is very complex. It is necessary to conduct researches on a far larger number of samples in order to detect the remaining described species in Croatia by molecular-phylogenetic methods and to determine their phylogenetic position by comparing them with the results of this research

    A Comparative Study on the Stormwater Retention of Organic Waste Substrates Biochar, Sawdust, and Wood Bark Recovered from Psidium Guajava L. Species

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    This research compares the stormwater retention performances of an organic waste growing medium extracted from the widely available Psidium guajavala L species in Sri Lanka. Rainfall gauges were manually constructed to outsource accurate precipitation data, and the study was conducted throughout the entire month of January 2023. A stormwater retention curve was constructed for the Biochar, Sawdust and Wood bark substrates and the hotspots were compared. Furthermore, the results were validated using a volumetric comparison of water retention. The experimental outcomes have shown that Biochar exhibits strong water retention ability and enables the overlaying vegetation to acquire nutrients without external obstacles. The main reason for this exceptional performance was biochar's low evaporation levels and high porosity. In contrast, Sawdust was found to be the worst performer in terms of water retention due to its high thermal conductivity. These experimental studies were rationalised by outsourcing the specimen from the same tree. Our recommendations suggest that the biochar manufacturing industry needs to be improved in the future since it provides a sustainable and effective alternative in terms of eco-friendly substrates

    Assessing the species boundary and ecological niche in freshwater gastropods of the family Physidae (Gastropoda, Hygrophila)

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    The present thesis contributed to increasing the knowledge about the diversity of the neotropical freshwater mollusks. Through the use of different methodologies for analyzing molecular and geographical occurrence data, we address important taxonomic issues and show new paths for future taxonomic research on the Physidae family. This family for a long time had classification proposals based only on morphological characters of the shell and, later, on the anatomy of the soft parts. The application of molecular delimitation methods based on coalescence showed the inadequacy of morphological criteria in discriminating intraspecific variability (overestimating family diversity) and in detecting the existence of cryptic species complexes (underestimating family diversity). The data on the occurrence along with the use of georeferencing tools, modeling, and ecological niche analyses applied to South American physid species, indicated the possibility of errors in species identification and the need to reassess the distribution of these physids using other operational criteria such as molecular approaches to access the actual family diversity and distribution for the continent.A presente tese contribuiu para ampliar o conhecimento sobre a diversidade da malacofauna dulc├şcola neotropical. Atrav├ęs do emprego de diferentes metodologias de an├ílise de dados moleculares e de ocorr├¬ncia geogr├ífica abordamos importantes quest├Áes taxon├┤micas e mostramos novos caminhos para futuras pesquisas taxon├┤micas da fam├şlia Physidae. Fam├şlia essa que por muito tempo teve propostas de classifica├ž├úo embasadas apenas em caracteres morfol├│gicos da concha e, posteriormente, na anatomia das partes moles. A aplica├ž├úo de m├ętodos de delimita├ž├úo molecular baseados em coalesc├¬ncia, evidenciou a insufici├¬ncia dos crit├ęrios morfol├│gicos em discriminar a variabilidade intraespec├şfica (superestimando a diversidade da fam├şlia) e, em detectar a exist├¬ncia de complexos de esp├ęcies cr├şpticas (subestimando a diversidade da fam├şlia). A abordagem de busca intensiva por dados de ocorr├¬ncia junto a utiliza├ž├úo de ferramentas de georreferenciamento, modelagem e an├ílises de nicho ecol├│gico aplicadas ├ás esp├ęcies de fis├şdeos sul-americanos, indicaram a possibilidade de erros de identifica├ž├úo de esp├ęcies e a necessidade de reavaliar a distribui├ž├úo desses fis├şdeos usando outros crit├ęrios operacionais, incluindo abordagens moleculares, para acessar a diversidade e distribui├ž├úo reais da fam├şlia para o continente

    ´╗┐First record of Rhizomatophora aegopodioides (Apiaceae) in Italy

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    The occurrence of Rhizomatophora aegopodioides, a species distributed in the Balkan Peninsula, Greece, southern Caucasus, Turkey and southern Russia, is reported here for the first time in Italy. It was discovered in Calabria (southern Italy) in the Argentino River Valley and along the Abatemarco River (municipality of Cosenza), localities partly included within the Pollino National Park. Information about taxonomy, nomenclature, habitat, phytosociology and distribution of this species in Italy are provided

    ´╗┐More hidden diversity in a cryptic species complex: a new subspecies of Leptidea sinapis (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) from Northern Iran

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    A new subspecies of Leptidea sinapis from Northern Iran, discovered by means of DNA barcoding, is described as Leptidea sinapis tabarestana ssp. nov. The new subspecies is allopatric with respect to other populations of L. sinapis and is genetically distinct, appearing as a well-supported sister clade to all other populations in COI-based phylogenetic reconstructions. Details on karyotype, genitalia, ecology and behaviour for the new subspecies are given and a biogeographical speciation scenario is proposed
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