29,423 research outputs found

    Space life sciences pilot user development program for the midwest region

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    The use of space for research by the life science community was promoted through a series of informal one-day seminars with personal follow-up as circumstances dictated. The programs were planned to: (1) describe the space shuttle vehicle and some of its intended uses; (2) discuss problems of manned space flight; (3) stimulate ideas for biological research in space; (4) discuss costs and potential for industrial and; government sponsorship; and (5) show the researcher or corporate planner how to become an active participant in life sciences research in space. An outline of seminar topics is included along with a description of the seminar organization and lists of participants and materials used

    Maximal physiological responses to deep and shallow water running.

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    The maximal physiological responses to treadmill running (TMR), shallow water running (SWR) and deep water running (DWR) while wearing a buoyancy vest were compared in 15 trained male runners. Measurements included oxygen consumption (VO2 max), respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and heart rate (HR). Treadmill running elicited VO2 max and HRmax, which were higher than the peaks attained in both water tests (p < 0.01). VO2 peak averaged 83.7 and 75.3% of VO2 max for SWR and DWR respectively. Peak HR for SWR and DWR were 94.1 and 87.2% of the HRmax reached in the TMR. RER responses were similar between the three modalities. The observations suggest that the training stimulus provided by water is still adequate for supplementary training. While SWR is potentially an efficient method of maintaining cardiovascular fitness, it needs to be investigated further to establish if it is a viable technique for the injured athlete to employ

    SNARE proteins as molecular masters of interneuronal communication

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    In the beginning of the 20th century the groundbreaking work\ud of Ramon y Cajal firmly established the neuron doctrine, according to which neurons are the basic structural and functional units of the nervous system. Von Weldeyer coined the term “neuron” in 1891, but the huge leap forward in\ud neuroscience was due to Cajal’s meticulous microscopic observations of brain sections stained with an improved version of Golgi’s la reazione nera (black reaction). The latter improvement of Golgi’s technique made it possible to visualize the arborizations of single neurons that were “colored brownish black even to their finest branchlets, standing out with unsurpassable clarity upon a transparent yellow background. All was sharp as a sketch with Chinese ink”. The high quality of both the visualization of individual nerve cells and the work performed on studying the anatomy of the central nervous system lead Ramon y Cajal to the conclusion that axons output the nervous impulses to the dendrites or the soma of other target neurons

    Maternal and neonatal serum magnesium concentrations in neural tube defects pregnancies in Gorgan (North of Iran) - A case control study

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    Objective: Neural tube defects (NTD) comprise a group of congenital malformations that include spinabifida, anencephaly and encephalocele. Previous studies have reported the embryotoxic and teratogenic effects of Magnesium deficiency in animal models. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine an association between Magnesium deficiency and neural tube defects in Northern Iran, which was reported to have a high prevalence of neural tube defects. Methods: This hospital based case control study was conducted on 13 mothers with newborns having neural tube defects and 35 healthy mothers as controls in Northern Iran during 2005-2006. Serum Magnesium was measured by spectrophotometery. Results: Serum Magnesium levels in mothers with NTD affected newborns and in mothers with healthy newborns were 1.5±0.6 and 1.32±0.3 micromol/litter, respectively. Overall, 46.2% mothers in the case group and 48.6 % mothers in the control group had Magnesium deficiency. Logistic regression analysis showed no association between the presence of NTD and Magnesium deficiency (OR =0.9, 95% Cl: 0.2-3.9, p=0.88). Serum Magnesium levels in newborns with NTD and healthy normal newborns were 1.4±0.6 micromol/litter and 1.3±0.4 micromol/litter, respectively. Overall, 30.8% newborns in the case group and 37.1 % newborns in the control group had Magnesium deficiency. Logistic regression analysis showed no association between the presence of NTD and Magnesium deficiency (OR =0.8, 95% Cl: 0.1-3.4 p=0.68). Conclusion: The present study did not find any association between the occurrence of NTD and Magnesium deficiency

    Technological characterization of vaginal probiotic lactobacilli: resistance to osmotic stress and strains compatibility

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    Aims: The aim was to evaluate the osmotic stress resistance of vaginal beneficial probiotic strains, their growth kinetics and parameters when growing in salt-added culture media, and their compatibility to go further in the design of a probiotic formula for reconstitution of vaginal microbiome in women. Methods and Results: The resistance to osmotic stress of the lactobacilli was evaluated by determining their growth in MRS (as control) added with NaCl (2–8%). The most resistant strains were Lactobacillus gasseri CRL1509, L. rhamnosus CRL1332 and L. reuteri CRL1327 selected by statistical approaches and growth parameters. Electron microscopy was applied to determine changes. They maintain probiotic properties and viability. Some strains showed incompatibility, then they cannot be included in multistrain formulas. Conclusions: The resistance to different salt concentrations in vaginal lactobacilli is strain-specific, because the behaviour is different in strains identified into the same species. The resistance is not related to the metabolic groups. Significance and Impact of the Study: The resistance and survival to extreme osmotic resistance is one of the specific requirements of beneficial bacteria after the technological processes for their inclusion in probiotic formulas, in a way to express their beneficial characteristics and exert the effect on the host.Fil: Silva, Jessica Alejandra. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Conicet - Tucumán. Centro de Referencia para Lactobacilos; ArgentinaFil: Marchesi, Antonella. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Conicet - Tucumán. Centro de Referencia para Lactobacilos; ArgentinaFil: Birgitt, Wiese. Hannover Medical School; AlemaniaFil: Nader, Maria Elena Fatima. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Conicet - Tucumán. Centro de Referencia para Lactobacilos; Argentin

    Effects of Laryngeal Restriction on Pharyngeal Peristalsis and Biomechanics: Clinical Implications

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    To date, rehabilitative exercises aimed at strengthening the pharyngeal muscles have not been developed due to the inability to successfully overload and fatigue these muscles during their contraction, a necessary requirement for strength training. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that applying resistance against anterosuperior movement of the hyolaryngeal complex will overload the pharyngeal muscles and by repetitive swallowing will result in their fatigue manifested by a reduction in pharyngeal peristaltic amplitude. Studies were done in two groups. In group 1 studies 15 healthy subjects (age: 42 ± 14 yr, 11 females) were studied to determine whether imposing resistance to swallowing using a handmade device can affect the swallow-induced hyolaryngeal excursion and related upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening. In group 2, an additional 15 healthy subjects (age 56 ± 25 yr, 7 females) were studied to determine whether imposing resistance to the anterosuperior excursion of the hyolaryngeal complex induces fatigue manifested as reduction in pharyngeal contractile pressure during repeated swallowing. Analysis of the video recordings showed significant decrease in maximum deglutitive superior laryngeal excursion and UES opening diameter (P \u3c 0.01) due to resistive load. Consecutive swallows against the resistive load showed significant decrease in pharyngeal contractile integral (PhCI) values (P \u3c 0.01). Correlation analysis showed a significant negative correlation between PhCI and successive swallows, suggesting “fatigue” (P \u3c 0.001). In conclusion, repeated swallows against a resistive load induced by restricting the anterosuperior excursion of the larynx safely induces fatigue in pharyngeal peristalsis and thus has the potential to strengthen the pharyngeal contractile function
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