Wolverhampton Intellectual Repository and E-theses

    Body mass index: a measure of fatness or leanness?

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    The relationship between body fat and stature-adjusted weight indices was explored. Assuming the term height��� is a valid indicator of a subject���s lean body mass, heighplweight was shown to be an accurate measure of percentage lean body mass and, as such, a better predictor of percentage body fat than the traditional body mass index (BMI; weight/height���). The name, lean body mass index (LBMI), is proposed for the index height2/weight. These assumptions were confirmed empirically using the results from the Allied Dunbar National Fitness Survey (ADNFS). Using simple allometric modelling, the term heightp explained 74 % of the variance in lean body mass compared with less than 40 YO in body weight. For the majority of ADNFS subjects the fitted exponent from both analyses was approximately p = 2, the only exception being the female subjects aged 55 years and over, where the exponent was found to be significantly less than 2. Using estimates of percentage body fat as the dependent variable, regression analysis was able to confirm that LBMZ was empirically, as well as theoretically, superior to the traditional BMI. Finally, wben the distributional properties of the two indices were compared, BMI was positively skewed and hence deviated considerably from a normal distribution. In contrast, LBMI was found to be both symmetric and normally distributed. When height and weight are recorded in centimetres and kilograms respectively, the suggested working normal range for LBMI is 300-500 with the median at 400

    Solving problems in nursing? Integrating problem based learning within the pre-registration nursing curriculum

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    Report of a CELT project on supporting students through innovation and researchIn response to a wider agenda, this innovation aimed to develop a Problem Based Learning approach to support teaching and learning in pre-registration nursing at Level 1. RN/ DipHE students on 3 University sites were divided into 25 groups, each with an average of 11 members. Each group was allocated 1 staff member who facilitated them for 15 contact hours per student, to work on 3 enigmas. Evaluation of the project suggests that both staff and students further developed a wide range of necessary skills within a supportive project structure

    Promoting employability in the curriculum: testing the assumptions

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    Report of a CELT project on supporting students through innovation and researc

    Plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase 4 is required for sperm motility and male fertility

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    Calcium and Ca(2+)-dependent signals play a crucial role in sperm motility and mammalian fertilization, but the molecules and mechanisms underlying these Ca(2+)-dependent pathways are incompletely understood. Here we show that homozygous male mice with a targeted gene deletion of isoform 4 of the plasma membrane calcium/calmodulin-dependent calcium ATPase (PMCA), which is highly enriched in the sperm tail, are infertile due to severely impaired sperm motility. Furthermore, the PMCA inhibitor 5-(and-6)-carboxyeosin diacetate succinimidyl ester reduced sperm motility in wild-type animals, thus mimicking the effects of PMCA4 deficiency on sperm motility and supporting the hypothesis of a pivotal role of the PMCA4 on the regulation of sperm function and intracellular Ca(2+) levels

    Traditional learning versus technology based learning (TBL) - an evaluation of the effectiveness of the Wolverhampton Online Learning Framework (WOLF)

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    Report of a CELT project on supporting students through innovation and researc

    Mood, self-set goals and examination performance: the moderating effect of depressed mood

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    The purpose of the present study was to investigate relationships between mood, performance goals, and examination performance. We tested the notion that feelings of depressed mood are central to the overall mood response and influence the functional impact of anger and tension on performance (see Lane & Terry, 2000). Fifty undergraduate students completed a measure of anger, confusion, depression, fatigue, tension and vigour approximately 10 min before a practical physiology examination. Participants also indicated the grade set as a goal for the examination, and rated their confidence to achieve this goal. Depressed mood data were analysed by dichotomising scores into depressed mood group (n = 23) or no-depressive symptoms group (n = 27). Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was adopted to explore the association between mood and performance and whether any differences exist between the depression and no-depression groups. Results indicated that only the anger-performance relationship differed between the depression and no-depression groups, whereby anger was associated with improved performance in the no-depression group. MANOVA results indicated that depressed mood was associated with a negative mood profile and low goal-confidence scores. Future research should investigate relationships between mood states using an ideographic design and explore links between variations in mood with more stable psychological factors such as emotional intelligence

    Vascular endothelial growth factor activates nuclear factor of activated T cells in human endothelial cells: a role for tissue factor gene expression

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    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent angiogenic inducer that stimulates the expression of tissue factor (TF), the major cellular initiator of blood coagulation. Here we show that signaling triggered by VEGF induced DNA-binding and transcriptional activities of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) and AP-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). VEGF also induced TF mRNA expression and gene promoter activation by a cyclosporin A (CsA)-sensitive mechanism. As in lymphoid cells, NFAT was dephosphorylated and translocated to the nucleus upon activation of HUVECs, and these processes were blocked by CsA. NFAT was involved in the VEGF-mediated TF promoter activation as evidenced by cotransfection experiments with a dominant negative version of NFAT and site-directed mutagenesis of a newly identified NFAT site within the TF promoter that overlaps with a previously identified kappaB-like site. Strikingly, this site bound exclusively NFAT not only from nuclear extracts of HUVECs activated by VEGF, a stimulus that failed to induce NF-kappaB-binding activity, but also from extracts of cells activated with phorbol esters and calcium ionophore, a combination of stimuli that triggered the simultaneous activation of NFAT and NF-kappaB. These results implicate NFAT in the regulation of endothelial genes by physiological means and shed light on the mechanisms that switch on the gene expression program induced by VEGF and those regulating TF gene expression

    The social and technical infrastructure for the virtual university in rural areas.

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    Rural Broadnet is funded by the HEFCE under a widening provision programme which is designed to increase access to higher education for groups within society who traditionally suffer from poor access. The project���s brief is to widen HE participation in rural areas utilising, where possible and necessary, an information technology infrastructure. The project���s programme is needs led and characterised by community level partnerships; it does not aim for high specification hardware, software or communications technology. Its focus is to facilitate delivery of education, training, information and advice to local rural communities using technology which is accessible to, and affordable by, those communities. Particular target groups are the unemployed, women returners, older people, the 16+ age group and those on low or negative income. Local businesses, mainly agriculture-related sole traders, with low skill levels and a poor tradition of training, are also seen as a target group. This project differs from many others in that it has focused on communities, has identified local needs and attempted to meet those needs, rather than simply imposing the established University ���learner��� model. A number of locally based and managed IT centres have been established, and these support a diverse range of course delivery and learning materials, from basic word processor use to Internet access and web site development. The Rural Broadnet team have become facilitators of a negotiated, student-centred learning experience which is supported at the local level by collaborative partnerships involving community groups, voluntary sector organisations, training providers and other agencies

    Dyslexia: a holistic review of the strengths and difficulties

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    This article was first published in the Wolverhampton Intellectual Repository and E-Theses (WIRE). There is no printed version.The field of dyslexia has often been subject to controversy and contradictions, whether this has been through media reports of reported cures or through the ongoing debate about whether dyslexia exists. This paper will explore the evidence for co-ocurring syndromes to demonstrate how dyslexia can be seen as part of a wider spectrum of specific learning difficulties. The social model of dyslexia will also be examined, which emphasises the role of society in limiting those with specific learning difficulties as well as recognising the talents and strengths that are often present. The possibility of unifying these theories to provide a coherent understanding of specific learning difficulties will also be explored
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