88,641 research outputs found

    Hypoxia Upregulates Estrogen Receptor ╬▓ in Pulmonary Artery Endothelial Cells in a HIF-1╬▒-Dependent Manner

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    17╬▓-Estradiol (E2) attenuates hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (HPH) through estrogen receptor (ER)-dependent effects, including inhibition of hypoxia-induced endothelial cell proliferation; however, the mechanisms responsible for this remain unknown. We hypothesized that the protective effects of E2 in HPH are mediated through hypoxia-inducible factor 1╬▒ (HIF-1╬▒)-dependent increases in ER╬▓ expression. Sprague-Dawley rats and ER╬▒ or ER╬▓ knockout mice were exposed to hypobaric hypoxia for 2-3 weeks. The effects of hypoxia were also studied in primary rat or human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs). Hypoxia increased expression of ER╬▓, but not ER╬▒, in lungs from HPH rats as well as in rat and human PAECs. ER╬▓ mRNA time dependently increased in PAECs exposed to hypoxia. Normoxic HIF-1╬▒/HIF-2╬▒ stabilization increased PAEC ER╬▓, whereas HIF-1╬▒ knockdown decreased ER╬▓ abundance in hypoxic PAECs. In turn, ER╬▓ knockdown in hypoxic PAECs increased HIF-2╬▒ expression, suggesting a hypoxia-sensitive feedback mechanism. ER╬▓ knockdown in hypoxic PAECs also decreased expression of the HIF inhibitor prolyl hydroxylase 2 (PHD2), whereas ER╬▓ activation increased PHD2 and decreased both HIF-1╬▒ and HIF-2╬▒, suggesting that ER╬▓ regulates the PHD2/HIF-1╬▒/HIF-2╬▒ axis during hypoxia. Whereas hypoxic wild-type or ER╬▒ knockout mice treated with E2 demonstrated less pulmonary vascular remodeling and decreased HIF-1╬▒ after hypoxia compared with untreated hypoxic mice, ER╬▓ knockout mice exhibited increased HIF-2╬▒ and an attenuated response to E2 during hypoxia. Taken together, our results demonstrate a novel and potentially therapeutically targetable mechanism whereby hypoxia, via HIF-1╬▒, increases ER╬▓ expression and the E2-ER╬▓ axis targets PHD2, HIF-1╬▒, and HIF-2╬▒ to attenuate HPH development

    HIF-1╬▓ Positively Regulates NF-╬║B Activity via Direct Control of TRAF6

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    NF-B signalling is crucial for cellular responses to inflammation but has also been associated with the hypoxia response. NF-B and HIF transcription factors possess an intense molecular crosstalk. Although it is known that HIF-1beta modulates NF-kappaB transcriptional response, very little is understood regarding how HIF-1beta contributes to NF-kappaB signalling. Here, we demonstrate that HIF-1beta is required for full NF-kappaB activation in cells following canonical and non-canonical stimuli. We found that HIF-1beta specifically controls TRAF6 expression in human cells but also in Drosophila melanogaster. HIF-1beta binds to the TRAF6 gene and controls its expression independently of HIF-1alpha. Furthermore, exogenous TRAF6 expression is able to rescue all of the cellular phenotypes observed in the absence of HIF-1beta. These results indicate that HIF-1beta is an important regulator of NF-kappaB with consequences for homeostasis and human disease.</jats:p

    A cyclic peptide inhibitor of HIF-1 heterodimerization that inhibits hypoxia signaling in cancer cells

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    Hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a heterodimeric transcription factor that acts as the master regulator of cellular response to reduced oxygen levels, thus playing a key role in the adaptation, survival and progression of tumors. Here we report cyclo-CLLFVY, identified from a library of 3.2 million cyclic hexapeptides using a genetically encoded high-throughput screening platform, as an inhibitor of the HIF-1╬▒/HIF-1╬▓ protein-protein interaction in vitro and in cells. The identified compound inhibits HIF-1 dimerization and transcription activity by binding to the PAS-B domain of HIF-1╬▒, reducing HIF-1-mediated hypoxia response signaling in a variety of cell lines, without affecting the function of the closely related HIF-2 isoform. The reported cyclic peptide demonstrates the utility of our high-throughput screening platform for the identification of protein-protein interaction inhibitors, and forms the starting point for the development of HIF-1 targeted cancer therapeutics

    HIF-1╬▒ Contributes to Hypoxia-induced Invasion and Metastasis of Esophageal Carcinoma via Inhibiting E-cadherin and Promoting MMP-2 Expression

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    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1╬▒ (HIF-1╬▒) has been found to enhance tumor invasion and metastasis, but no study has reported its action in esophageal carcinoma. The goal of this study was to explore the probable mechanism of HIF-1╬▒ in the invasion and metastasis of esophageal carcinoma Eca109 cells in vitro and in vivo. mRNA and protein expression of HIF-1╬▒, E-cadherin and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) under hypoxia were detected by RT-PCR and Western blotting. The effects of silencing HIF-1╬▒ on E-cadherin, MMP-2 mRNA and protein expression under hypoxia or normoxia were detected by RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The invasive ability of Eca109 cells was tested using a transwell chambers. We established an Eca109-implanted tumor model and observed tumor growth and lymph node metastasis. The expression of HIF-1╬▒, E-cadherin and MMP-2 in xenograft tumors was detected by Western blotting. After exposure to hypoxia, HIF-1╬▒ protein was up-regulated, both mRNA and protein levels of E-cadherin were down-regulated and MMP-2 was up-regulated, while HIF-1╬▒ mRNA showed no significant change. SiRNA could block HIF-1╬▒ effectively, increase E-cadherin expression and inhibit MMP-2 expression. The number of invading cells decreased after HIF-1╬▒ was silenced. Meanwhile, the tumor volume was much smaller, and the metastatic rate of lymph nodes and the positive rate were lower in vivo. Our observations suggest that HIF-1╬▒ inhibition might be an effective strategy to weaken invasion and metastasis in the esophageal carcinoma Eca109 cell line

    A long-term "memory" of HIF induction in response to chronic mild decreased oxygen after oxygen normalization

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    Background Endothelial dysfunction (ED) is functionally characterized by decreased vasorelaxation, increased thrombosis, increased inflammation, and altered angiogenic potential, has been intimately associated with the progression and severity of cardiovascular disease. Patients with compromised cardiac function oftentimes have a state of chronic mild decreased oxygen at the level of the vasculature and organs, which has been shown to exacerbate ED. Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) is a transcription factor complex shown to be the master regulator of the cellular response to decreased oxygen levels and many HIF target genes have been shown to be associated with ED. Methods Human endothelial and aortic smooth muscle cells were exposed either to A) normoxia (21% O2) for three weeks, or to B) mild decreased oxygen (15% O2) for three weeks to mimic blood oxygen levels in patients with heart failure, or to C) mild decreased oxygen for two weeks followed by one week of normoxia ("memory" treatment). Levels of HIF signaling genes (HIF-1╬▒, HIF-2╬▒, VEGF, BNIP3, GLUT-1, PAI-1 and iNOS) were measured both at the protein and mRNA levels. Results It was found that chronic exposure to mild decreased oxygen resulted in significantly increased HIF signaling. There was also a "memory" of HIF-1╬▒ and HIF target gene induction when oxygen levels were normalized for one week, and this "memory" could be interrupted by adding a small molecule HIF inhibitor to the last week of normalized oxygen. Finally, levels of ubiquitylated HIF-1╬▒ were reduced in response to chronic mild decreased oxygen and were not full restored after oxygen normalization. Conclusion These data suggest that HIF signaling may be contributing to the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction and that normalization of oxygen levels may not be enough to reduce vascular stress

    Early redox activities modulate Xenopus tail regeneration.

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    Redox state sustained by reactive oxygen species (ROS) is crucial for regeneration; however, the interplay between oxygen (O2), ROS and hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF) remains elusive. Here we observe, using an optic-based probe (optrode), an elevated and steady O2 influx immediately upon amputation. The spatiotemporal O2 influx profile correlates with the regeneration of Xenopus laevis tadpole tails. Inhibition of ROS production but not ROS scavenging decreases O2 influx. Inhibition of HIF-1╬▒ impairs regeneration and stabilization of HIF-1╬▒ induces regeneration in the refractory period. In the regeneration bud, hypoxia correlates with O2 influx, ROS production, and HIF-1╬▒ stabilization that modulate regeneration. Further analyses reveal that heat shock protein 90 is a putative downstream target of HIF-1╬▒ while electric current reversal is a de facto downstream target of HIF-1╬▒. Collectively, the results show a mechanism for regeneration via the orchestration of O2 influx, ROS production, and HIF-1╬▒ stabilization

    Nuclear ╬▓-arrestin1 is a critical cofactor of hypoxia-inducible factor-1╬▒ signaling in endothelin-1-induced ovarian tumor progression

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    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1╬▒ (HIF-1╬▒) mediates the response to hypoxia or other stimuli, such as growth factors, including endothelin-1 (ET-1), to promote malignant progression in numerous tumors. The importance of cofactors that regulate HIF-1╬▒ signalling within tumor is not well understood. Here we elucidate that ET-1/ET(A) receptor (ET(A)R)-induced pathway physically and functionally couples the scaffold protein ╬▓-arrestin1 (╬▓-arr1) to HIF-1╬▒ signalling. In epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells, ET-1/ET(A)R axis induced vascular-endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression through HIF-1╬▒ nuclear accumulation. In these cells, activation of ET(A)R by ET-1, by mimicking hypoxia, promoted the nuclear interaction between ╬▓-arr1 and HIF-1╬▒ and the recruitment of p300 acetyltransferase to hypoxia response elements on the target gene promoters, resulting in enhanced histone acetylation, and HIF-1╬▒ target gene transcription. Indeed, ╬▓-arr1-HIF-1╬▒ interaction regulated the enhanced expression and release of downstream targets, such as ET-1 and VEGF, required for tumor cell invasion and pro-angiogenic effects in endothelial cells. These effects were abrogated by ╬▓-arr1 or HIF-1╬▒ silencing or by pharmacological treatment with the dual ET-1 receptor antagonist macitentan. Interestingly, ET(A)R/╬▓-arr1 promoted the self-amplifying HIF-1╬▒-mediated transcription of ET-1 that sustained a regulatory circuit involved in invasive and angiogenic behaviors. In a murine orthotopic model of metastatic human EOC, treatment with macitentan, or silencing of ╬▓-arr1, inhibits intravasation and metastasis formation. Collectively, these findings reveal the interplay of ╬▓-arr1 with HIF-1╬▒ in the complexity of ET-1/ET(A)R signalling, mediating epigenetic modifications directly involved in the metastatic process, and suggest that targeting ET-1-dependent ╬▓-arr1/HIF-1╬▒ pathway by using macitentan may impair EOC progression

    PITX1, a specificity determinant in the HIF-1╬▒-mediated transcriptional response to hypoxia

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    Hypoxia is an important developmental cue for multicellular organisms but it is also a contributing factor for several human pathologies, such as stroke, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. In cells, hypoxia activates a major transcriptional program coordinated by the Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF) family. HIF can activate more than one hundred targets but not all of them are activated at the same time, and there is considerable cell type variability. In this report we identified the paired-like homeodomain pituitary transcription factor (PITX1), as a transcription factor that helps promote specificity in HIF-1╬▒ dependent target gene activation. Mechanistically, PITX1 associates with HIF-1╬▓ and it is important for the induction of certain HIF-1 dependent genes but not all. In particular, PITX1 controls the HIF-1╬▒-dependent expression of the histone demethylases; JMJD2B, JMJD2A, JMJD2C and JMJD1B. Functionally, PITX1 is required for the survival and proliferation responses in hypoxia, as PITX1 depleted cells have higher levels of apoptotic markers and reduced proliferation. Overall, our study identified PITX1 as a key specificity factor in HIF-1╬▒ dependent responses, suggesting PITX1 as a protein to target in hypoxic cancers
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