220 research outputs found

    Interaction of Human Serum Albumin with short Polyelectrolytes: A study by Calorimetry and Computer Simulation

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    We present a comprehensive study of the interaction of human serum albumin (HSA) with poly(acrylic acid) (PAA; number average degree of polymerization: 25) in aqueous solution. The interaction of HSA with PAA is studied in dilute solution as the function of the concentration of added salt (20 - 100 mM) and temperature (25 - 37∘^{\circ}C). Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is used to analyze the interaction and to determine the binding constant and related thermodynamic data. It is found that only one PAA chain is bound per HSA molecule. The free energy of binding ΔGb\Delta G_b increases with temperature significantly. ΔGb\Delta G_b decreases with increasing salt concentration and is dominated by entropic contributions due to the release of bound counterions. Coarse-grained Langevin computer simulations treating the counterions in an explicit manner are used study the process of binding in detail. These simulations demonstrate that the PAA chains are bound in the Sudlow II site of the HSA. Moreover, ΔGb\Delta G_b is calculated from the simulations and found to be in very good agreement with the measured data. The simulations demonstrate clearly that the driving force of binding is the release of counterions in full agreement with the ITC-data

    PeptiCKDdb-peptide- and protein-centric database for the investigation of genesis and progression of chronic kidney disease

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    The peptiCKDdb is a publicly available database platform dedicated to support research in the field of chronic kidney disease (CKD) through identification of novel biomarkers and molecular features of this complex pathology. PeptiCKDdb collects peptidomics and proteomics datasets manually extracted from published studies related to CKD. Datasets from peptidomics or proteomics, human case/control studies on CKD and kidney or urine profiling were included. Data from 114 publications (studies of body fluids and kidney tissue: 26 peptidomics and 76 proteomics manuscripts on human CKD, and 12 focusing on healthy proteome profiling) are currently deposited and the content is quarterly updated. Extracted datasets include information about the experimental setup, clinical study design, discovery-validation sample sizes and list of differentially expressed proteins (P-value < 0.05). A dedicated interactive web interface, equipped with multiparametric search engine, data export and visualization tools, enables easy browsing of the data and comprehensive analysis. In conclusion, this repository might serve as a source of data for integrative analysis or a knowledgebase for scientists seeking confirmation of their findings and as such, is expected to facilitate the modeling of molecular mechanisms underlying CKD and identification of biologically relevant biomarkers.Database URL: www.peptickddb.com

    Identification of novel molecular signatures of IgA nephropathy through an integrative -omics analysis

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    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most prevalent among primary glomerular diseases worldwide. Although our understanding of IgAN has advanced significantly, its underlying biology and potential drug targets are still unexplored. We investigated a combinatorial approach for the analysis of IgAN-relevant -omics data, aiming at identification of novel molecular signatures of the disease. Nine published urinary proteomics datasets were collected and the reported differentially expressed proteins in IgAN vs. healthy controls were integrated into known biological pathways. Proteins participating in these pathways were subjected to multi-step assessment, including investigation of IgAN transcriptomics datasets (Nephroseq database), their reported protein-protein interactions (STRING database), kidney tissue expression (Human Protein Atlas) and literature mining. Through this process, from an initial dataset of 232 proteins significantly associated with IgAN, 20 pathways were predicted, yielding 657 proteins for further analysis. Step-wise evaluation highlighted 20 proteins of possibly high relevance to IgAN and/or kidney disease. Experimental validation of 3 predicted relevant proteins, adenylyl cyclase-associated protein 1 (CAP1), SHC-transforming protein 1 (SHC1) and prolylcarboxypeptidase (PRCP) was performed by immunostaining of human kidney sections. Collectively, this study presents an integrative procedure for -omics data exploitation, giving rise to biologically relevant results

    Threonine 150 phosphorylation of keratin 5 is linked to EBS and regulates filament assembly, cell cycle and oxidative stress response

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    A characteristic feature of the skin blistering disease epidermolysis bullosa simplex is keratin filament (KF) network collapse caused by aggregation of the basal epidermal keratin type II (KtyII) K5 and its type I partner keratin 14 (K14). Here, we examine the role of keratin phosphorylation in KF network rearrangement and cellular functions. We detect phosphorylation of the K5 head domain residue T150 in cytoplasmic epidermolysis bullosa simplex granules containing R125C K14 mutants. Expression of phosphomimetic T150D K5 mutants results in impaired KF formation in keratinocytes. The phenotype is enhanced upon combination with other phosphomimetic K5 head domain mutations. Remarkably, introduction of T150D K5 mutants into KtyII-lacking (KtyII–/–) keratinocytes prevents keratin network formation altogether. In contrast, phosphorylation-deficient T150A K5 leads to KFs with reduced branching and turnover. Assembly of T150D K5 is arrested at the heterotetramer stage coinciding with increased heat shock protein association. Finally, reduced cell viability and elevated response to stressors is noted in T150 mutant cells. Taken together, our findings identify T150 K5 phosphorylation as an important determinant of KF network formation and function with a possible role in epidermolysis bullosa simplex pathogenesis

    Targeting proinflammatory cytokines ameliorates calcifying phenotype conversion of vascular progenitors under uremic conditions in vitro

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    Severe vascular calcification develops almost invariably in chronic kidney patients posing a substantial risk to quality of life and survival. This unmet medical need demands identification of novel therapeutic modalities. We aimed to pinpoint components of the uremic microenvironment triggering differentiation of vascular progenitors to calcifying osteoblast-like cells. In an unbiased approach, assessing the individual potency of 63 uremic retention solutes to enhance calcific phenotype conversion of vascular progenitor cells, the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha were identified as the strongest inducers followed by FGF-2, and PTH. Pharmacologic targeting of these molecules alone or in combination additively antagonized pro-calcifying properties of sera from uremic patients. Our findings stress the importance of pro-inflammatory cytokines above other characteristic components of the uremic microenvironment as key mediators of calcifying osteoblastic differentiation in vascular progenitors. Belonging to the group of "middle-sized molecules", they are neither effectively removed by conventional dialysis nor influenced by established supportive therapies. Specific pharmacologic interventions or novel extracorporeal approaches may help preserve regenerative capacity and control vascular calcification due to uremic environment

    A Bifunctional Adsorber Particle for the Removal of Hydrophobic Uremic Toxins from Whole Blood of Renal Failure Patients

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    Hydrophobic uremic toxins accumulate in patients with chronic kidney disease, contributing to a highly increased cardiovascular risk. The clearance of these uremic toxins using current hemodialysis techniques is limited due to their hydrophobicity and their high binding affinity to plasma proteins. Adsorber techniques may be an appropriate alternative to increase hydrophobic uremic toxin removal. We developed an extracorporeal, whole-blood bifunctional adsorber particle consisting of a porous, activated charcoal core with a hydrophilic polyvinylpyrrolidone surface coating. The adsorption capacity was quantified using analytical chromatography after perfusion of the particles with an albumin solution or blood, each containing mixtures of hydrophobic uremic toxins. A time-dependent increase in hydrophobic uremic toxin adsorption was depicted and all toxins showed a high binding affinity to the adsorber particles. Further, the particle showed a sufficient hemocompatibility without significant effects on complement component 5a, thrombin-antithrombin III complex, or thrombocyte concentration in blood in vitro, although leukocyte counts were slightly reduced. In conclusion, the bifunctional adsorber particle with cross-linked polyvinylpyrrolidone coating showed a high adsorption capacity without adverse effects on hemocompatibility in vitro. Thus, it may be an interesting candidate for further in vivo studies with the aim to increase the efficiency of conventional dialysis techniques

    Mass-spectrometric identification of a novel angiotensin peptide in human plasma

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    Objective— Angiotensin peptides play a central role in cardiovascular physiology and pathology. Among these peptides, angiotensin II (Ang II) has been investigated most intensively. However, further angiotensin peptides such as Ang 1-7, Ang III, and Ang IV also contribute to vascular regulation, and may elicit additional, different, or even opposite effects to Ang II. Here, we describe a novel Ang II-related, strong vasoconstrictive substance in plasma from healthy humans and end-stage renal failure patients. Methods and Results— Chromatographic purification and structural analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight/time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) revealed an angiotensin octapeptide with the sequence Ala-Arg-Val-Tyr-Ile-His-Pro-Phe, which differs from Ang II in Ala1 instead of Asp1. Des[Asp1]-[Ala1]-Ang II, in the following named Angiotensin A (Ang A), is most likely generated enzymatically. In the presence of mononuclear leukocytes, Ang II is converted to Ang A by decarboxylation of Asp1. Ang A has the same affinity to the AT1 receptor as Ang II, but a higher affinity to the AT2 receptor. In the isolated perfused rat kidney, Ang A revealed a smaller vasoconstrictive effect than Ang II, which was not modified in the presence of the AT2 receptor antagonist PD 123319, suggesting a lower intrinsic activity at the AT1 receptor. Ang II and Ang A concentrations in plasma of healthy subjects and end-stage renal failure patients were determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass-analysis, because conventional enzyme immunoassay for Ang II quantification did not distinguish between Ang II and Ang A. In healthy subjects, Ang A concentrations were less than 20% of the Ang II concentrations, but the ratio Ang A / Ang II was higher in end-stage renal failure patients. Conclusion— Ang A is a novel human strong vasoconstrictive angiotensin-derived peptide, most likely generated by enzymatic transformation through mononuclear leukocyte-derived aspartate decarboxylase. Plasma Ang A concentration is increased in end-stage renal failure. Because of its stronger agonism at the AT2 receptor, Ang A may modulate the harmful effects of Ang II. In this study, a new angiotensin-peptide of human plasma is described, which is characterized as a strong AT2-receptor agonist

    Qué hacer con las separatas

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    Sección: Pequeñas soluciones para grandes problemasLas separatas son unidades de informacion muy útiles y de gran valor para los investigadores pero que, a menudo, resultan una rémora pues su materia no encaja bien en nuestra biblioteca.N
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