Durham Research Online

    The inner nuclear membrane protein Emerin regulates beta-catenin activity by restricting its accumulation in the nucleus.

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    Emerin is a type II inner nuclear membrane (INM) protein of unknown function. Emerin function is likely to be important because, when it is mutated, emerin promotes both skeletal muscle and heart defects. Here we show that one function of Emerin is to regulate the flux of -catenin, an important transcription coactivator, into the nucleus. Emerin interacts with -catenin through a conserved adenomatous polyposis coli (APC)-like domain. When GFP-emerin is expressed in HEK293 cells, -catenin is restricted to the cytoplasm and -catenin activity is inhibited. In contrast, expression of an emerin mutant, lacking its APC-like domain (GFP-emerin), dominantly stimulates -catenin activity and increases nuclear accumulation of -catenin. Human fibroblasts that are null for emerin have an autostimulatory growth phenotype. This unusual growth phenotype arises through enhanced nuclear accumulation and activity of -catenin and can be replicated in wild-type fibroblasts by transfection with constitutively active -catenin. Our results support recent findings that suggest that INM proteins can influence signalling pathways by restricting access of transcription coactivators to the nucleus

    NLO QCD matrix elements + parton showers in e+e− → hadrons.

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    We present a new approach to combine multiple NLO parton-level calculations matched to parton showers into a single inclusive event sample. The method provides a description of hard multi-jet configurations at next-to leading order in the perturbative expansion of QCD, and it is supplemented with the all-orders resummed modelling of jet fragmentation provided by the parton shower. The formal accuracy of this technique is discussed in detail, invoking the example of electron-positron annihilation into hadrons. We focus on the effect of renormalisation scale variations in particular. Comparison with experimental data from LEP underlines that this novel formalism describes data with a theoretical accuracy that has hitherto not been achieved in standard Monte Carlo event generators

    CORONA satellite photography : an archaeological application from the Middle East.

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    The declassification of CORONA high-resolution space photography has made a valuable new resource available for the study of ancient landscapes. Using a recent case-study from Syria, examples are given of various ways in which CORONA imagery can significantly enhance regional survey work

    Detecting plague : palaeodemographic characterisation of a catastrophic death assemblage.

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    The archaeological definition of a plague should be possible from skeletal populations, because the age profile of a population afflicted by a catastrophe will be different to that of a community exposed to a more normal mortality. The authors show how this can be done using a Bayesian statistical analysis

    Sociological strand : worship and action.

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    Neurofeedback training versus treatment as usual for alcohol dependence: results of an early phase randomized controlled trial and neuroimaging correlates

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    Introduction: Alcohol dependence is one of the most common substance use disorders and novel treatment options are urgently needed. Neurofeedback training (NFT) based on real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rtfMRI) has emerged as an attractive candidate for add-on treatments in psychiatry, but its use in alcohol dependence has not been formally investigated in a clinical trial. We investigated the use of rtfMRI-based NFT to prevent relapse in alcohol dependence. Methods: 52 alcohol dependent patients from the United Kingdom who had completed a detoxification programme were randomly assigned to a treatment group (receiving rtfMRI NFT in addition to standard care) or the control group (receiving standard care only). At baseline alcohol consumption was assessed as the primary outcome measure and a variety of psychological, behavioral and neural parameters as secondary outcome measures to determine feasibility and secondary training effects. Participants in the treatment group underwent six NFT sessions over 4 months and were trained to down-regulate their brain activation in the salience network in the presence of alcohol stimuli and to up-regulate frontal activation in response to pictures related to positive goals. Four, eight and 12 months after baseline assessment, both groups were followed up with a battery of clinical and psychometric tests. Results: Primary outcome measures showed very low relapse rates for both groups. Analysis of neural secondary outcome measures indicated that the majority of patients modulated the salience system in the desired directions, by decreasing activity in response to alcohol stimuli and increasing activation in response to positive goals. The intervention had a good safety and acceptability profile. Conclusion: We demonstrated that rtfMRI-neurofeedback targeting hyperactivity of the salience network in response to alcohol cues is feasible in currently abstinent patients with alcohol dependence

    Violence, authority, and the state in the Nuba Mountains of Condominium Sudan.

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    While British colonial rhetoric consistently identified tradition as the basis of legitimate authority, colonial practice actually produced far-reaching changes in the nature of government in Britain's African possessions. New institutions, and new holders of power, emerged in African societies in response to the particular needs of colonial administration. This article explores this transformation in one part of Condominium Sudan, which was effectively a British possession but which has often been excluded from historical discussions of the impact of colonialism because of its unique status. The Nuba Mountains have recently gained notoriety as a particularly bloody theatre of Sudan's long post-colonial civil war; while some have sought to explain this as the result of British policies which encouraged racial antagonism, the article suggests that here, as elsewhere in Africa, the real legacy of colonial rule was the creation of new kinds of local government which sat uneasily with enduring local ideas of spiritual power and proper authority
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