301 research outputs found

    Askey-Wilson Type Functions, With Bound States

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    The two linearly independent solutions of the three-term recurrence relation of the associated Askey-Wilson polynomials, found by Ismail and Rahman in [22], are slightly modified so as to make it transparent that these functions satisfy a beautiful symmetry property. It essentially means that the geometric and the spectral parameters are interchangeable in these functions. We call the resulting functions the Askey-Wilson functions. Then, we show that by adding bound states (with arbitrary weights) at specific points outside of the continuous spectrum of some instances of the Askey-Wilson difference operator, we can generate functions that satisfy a doubly infinite three-term recursion relation and are also eigenfunctions of qq-difference operators of arbitrary orders. Our result provides a discrete analogue of the solutions of the purely differential version of the bispectral problem that were discovered in the pioneering work [8] of Duistermaat and Gr\"unbaum.Comment: 42 pages, Section 3 moved to the end, minor correction

    QUAGMIRE v1.3: a quasi-geostrophic model for investigating rotating fluids experiments

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    QUAGMIRE is a quasi-geostrophic numerical model for performing fast, high-resolution simulations of multi-layer rotating annulus laboratory experiments on a desktop personal computer. The model uses a hybrid finite-difference/spectral approach to numerically integrate the coupled nonlinear partial differential equations of motion in cylindrical geometry in each layer. Version 1.3 implements the special case of two fluid layers of equal resting depths. The flow is forced either by a differentially rotating lid, or by relaxation to specified streamfunction or potential vorticity fields, or both. Dissipation is achieved through Ekman layer pumping and suction at the horizontal boundaries, including the internal interface. The effects of weak interfacial tension are included, as well as the linear topographic beta-effect and the quadratic centripetal beta-effect. Stochastic forcing may optionally be activated, to represent approximately the effects of random unresolved features. A leapfrog time stepping scheme is used, with a Robert filter. Flows simulated by the model agree well with those observed in the corresponding laboratory experiments

    KP Trigonometric Solitons and an Adelic Flag Manifold

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    We show that the trigonometric solitons of the KP hierarchy enjoy a differential-difference bispectral property, which becomes transparent when translated on two suitable spaces of pairs of matrices satisfying certain rank one conditions. The result can be seen as a non-self-dual illustration of Wilson's fundamental idea [Invent. Math. 133 (1998), 1-41] for understanding the (self-dual) bispectral property of the rational solutions of the KP hierarchy. It also gives a bispectral interpretation of a (dynamical) duality between the hyperbolic Calogero-Moser system and the rational Ruijsenaars-Schneider system, which was first observed by Ruijsenaars [Comm. Math. Phys. 115 (1988), 127-165]

    Optimum single antenna full duplex using hybrid junctions

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    Matrix biorthogonal polynomials on the unit circle and non-Abelian Ablowitz-Ladik hierarchy

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    Adler and van Moerbeke \cite{AVM} described a reduction of 2D-Toda hierarchy called Toeplitz lattice. This hierarchy turns out to be equivalent to the one originally described by Ablowitz and Ladik \cite{AL} using semidiscrete zero-curvature equations. In this paper we obtain the original semidiscrete zero-curvature equations starting directly from the Toeplitz lattice and we generalize these computations to the matrix case. This generalization lead us to the semidiscrete zero-curvature equations for the non-abelian (or multicomponent) version of Ablowitz-Ladik equations \cite{GI}. In this way we extend the link between biorthogonal polynomials on the unit circle and Ablowitz-Ladik hierarchy to the matrix case.Comment: 23 pages, accepted on publication on J. Phys. A., electronic link: http://stacks.iop.org/1751-8121/42/36521

    Electrical Balance Duplexing for Small Form Factor Realisation of In-Band Full-Duplex

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    Control of an atom laser using feedback

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    A generalised method of using feedback to control Bose-Einstein condensates is introduced. The condensates are modelled by the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, so only semiclassical fluctations can be suppressed, and back-action from the measurement is ignored. We show that for any available control, a feedback scheme can be found to reduce the energy while the appropriate moment is still dynamic. We demonstrate these schemes by considering a condensate trapped in a harmonic potential that can be modulated in strength and position. The formalism of our feedback scheme also allows the inclusion of certain types of non-linear controls. If the non-linear interaction between the atoms can be controlled via a Feshbach resonance, we show that the feedback process can operate with a much higher efficiency.Comment: 6 pages, 7 figure

    Measuring the quantum statistics of an atom laser beam

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    We propose and analyse a scheme for measuring the quadrature statistics of an atom laser beam using extant optical homodyning and Raman atom laser techniques. Reversal of the normal Raman atom laser outcoupling scheme is used to map the quantum statistics of an incoupled beam to an optical probe beam. A multimode model of the spatial propagation dynamics shows that the Raman incoupler gives a clear signal of de Broglie wave quadrature squeezing for both pulsed and continuous inputs. Finally, we show that experimental realisations of the scheme may be tested with existing methods via measurements of Glauber's intensity correlation function.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figure

    Passive and Active Electrical Balance Duplexers

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