1,604 research outputs found

    The Changing Geometry of a Fitness Landscape Along an Adaptive Walk

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    It has recently been noted that the relative prevalence of the various kinds of epistasis varies along an adaptive walk. This has been explained as a result of mean regression in NK model fitness landscapes. Here we show that this phenomenon occurs quite generally in fitness landscapes. We propose a simple and general explanation for this phenomemon, confirming the role of mean regression. We provide support for this explanation with simulations, and discuss the empirical relevance of our findings.Comment: 29 pages, 7 figure

    The Structure of Inner Multipliers on Spaces with Complete Nevanlinna Pick Kernels

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    We establish some multivariate generalizations of the Beurling-Lax-Halmos theorem.Comment: 21 page

    Designing antibiotic cycling strategies by determining and understanding local adaptive landscapes

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    The evolution of antibiotic resistance among bacteria threatens our continued ability to treat infectious diseases. The need for sustainable strategies to cure bacterial infections has never been greater. So far, all attempts to restore susceptibility after resistance has arisen have been unsuccessful, including restrictions on prescribing [1] and antibiotic cycling [2,3]. Part of the problem may be that those efforts have implemented different classes of unrelated antibiotics, and relied on removal of resistance by random loss of resistance genes from bacterial populations (drift). Here, we show that alternating structurally similar antibiotics can restore susceptibility to antibiotics after resistance has evolved. We found that the resistance phenotypes conferred by variant alleles of the resistance gene encoding the TEM {\beta}-lactamase (blaTEM) varied greatly among 15 different {\beta}-lactam antibiotics. We captured those differences by characterizing complete adaptive landscapes for the resistance alleles blaTEM-50 and blaTEM-85, each of which differs from its ancestor blaTEM-1 by four mutations. We identified pathways through those landscapes where selection for increased resistance moved in a repeating cycle among a limited set of alleles as antibiotics were alternated. Our results showed that susceptibility to antibiotics can be sustainably renewed by cycling structurally similar antibiotics. We anticipate that these results may provide a conceptual framework for managing antibiotic resistance. This approach may also guide sustainable cycling of the drugs used to treat malaria and HIV

    Iatrogenic air embolism: pathoanatomy, thromboinflammation, endotheliopathy, and therapies

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    Iatrogenic vascular air embolism is a relatively infrequent event but is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. These emboli can arise in many clinical settings such as neurosurgery, cardiac surgery, and liver transplantation, but more recently, endoscopy, hemodialysis, thoracentesis, tissue biopsy, angiography, and central and peripheral venous access and removal have overtaken surgery and trauma as significant causes of vascular air embolism. The true incidence may be greater since many of these air emboli are asymptomatic and frequently go undiagnosed or unreported. Due to the rarity of vascular air embolism and because of the many manifestations, diagnoses can be difficult and require immediate therapeutic intervention. An iatrogenic air embolism can result in both venous and arterial emboli whose anatomic locations dictate the clinical course. Most clinically significant iatrogenic air emboli are caused by arterial obstruction of small vessels because the pulmonary gas exchange filters the more frequent, smaller volume bubbles that gain access to the venous circulation. However, there is a subset of patients with venous air emboli caused by larger volumes of air who present with more protean manifestations. There have been significant gains in the understanding of the interactions of fluid dynamics, hemostasis, and inflammation caused by air emboli due to in vitro and in vivo studies on flow dynamics of bubbles in small vessels. Intensive research regarding the thromboinflammatory changes at the level of the endothelium has been described recently. The obstruction of vessels by air emboli causes immediate pathoanatomic and immunologic and thromboinflammatory responses at the level of the endothelium. In this review, we describe those immunologic and thromboinflammatory responses at the level of the endothelium as well as evaluate traditional and novel forms of therapy for this rare and often unrecognized clinical condition

    Optimasi Portofolio Resiko Menggunakan Model Markowitz MVO Dikaitkan dengan Keterbatasan Manusia dalam Memprediksi Masa Depan dalam Perspektif Al-Qur`an

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    Risk portfolio on modern finance has become increasingly technical, requiring the use of sophisticated mathematical tools in both research and practice. Since companies cannot insure themselves completely against risk, as human incompetence in predicting the future precisely that written in Al-Quran surah Luqman verse 34, they have to manage it to yield an optimal portfolio. The objective here is to minimize the variance among all portfolios, or alternatively, to maximize expected return among all portfolios that has at least a certain expected return. Furthermore, this study focuses on optimizing risk portfolio so called Markowitz MVO (Mean-Variance Optimization). Some theoretical frameworks for analysis are arithmetic mean, geometric mean, variance, covariance, linear programming, and quadratic programming. Moreover, finding a minimum variance portfolio produces a convex quadratic programming, that is minimizing the objective function ðð¥with constraintsð ð 𥠥 ðandð´ð¥ = ð. The outcome of this research is the solution of optimal risk portofolio in some investments that could be finished smoothly using MATLAB R2007b software together with its graphic analysis

    Impacts of the Tropical Pacific/Indian Oceans on the Seasonal Cycle of the West African Monsoon