1,957 research outputs found

    Transcriptional activation of the miR-17-92 cluster is involved in the growth-promoting effects of MYB in human Ph-positive leukemia cells.

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    MicroRNAs, non-coding regulators of gene expression, are likely to function as important downstream effectors of many transcription factors including MYB. Optimal levels of MYB are required for transformation/maintenance of BCR-ABL-expressing cells. We investigated whether MYB silencing modulates microRNA expression in Philadelphia-positive (Ph+) leukemia cells and if MYB-regulated microRNAs are important for the MYB addiction of these cells. Thirty-five microRNAs were modulated by MYB silencing in lymphoid and erythromyeloid chronic myeloid leukemia-blast crisis BV173 and K562 cells; 15 of these were concordantly modulated in both lines. We focused on the miR-17-92 cluster because of its oncogenic role in tumors and found that: i) it is a direct MYB target; ii) it partially rescued the impaired proliferation and enhanced apoptosis of MYB-silenced BV173 cells. Moreover, we identified FRZB, a Wnt/β-catenin pathway inhibitor, as a novel target of the miR-17-92 cluster. High expression of MYB in blast cells from 2 Ph+leukemia patients correlated positively with the miR-17-92 cluster and inversely with FRZB. This expression pattern was also observed in a microarray dataset of 122 Ph+acute lymphoblastic leukemias. In vivo experiments in NOD scid gamma mice injected with BV173 cells confirmed that FRZB functions as a Wnt/β-catenin inhibitor even as they failed to demonstrate that this pathway is important for BV173-dependent leukemogenesis. These studies illustrate the global effects of MYB expression on the microRNAs profile of Ph+cells and supports the concept that the MYB addiction of these cells is, in part, caused by modulation of microRNA-regulated pathways affecting cell proliferation and survival. Copyright© 2019 Ferrata Storti Foundation

    A clinically relevant model of osteoinduction: a process requiring calcium phosphate and BMP/Wnt signalling

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    In this study, we investigated a clinically relevant model of in vivo ectopic bone formation utilizing human periosteum derived cells (HPDCs) seeded in a Collagraft carrier and explored the mechanisms by which this process is driven. Bone formation occurred after eight weeks when a minimum of one million HPDCs was loaded on Collagraft carriers and implanted subcutaneously in NMRI nu/nu mice. De novo bone matrix, mainly secreted by the HPDCs, was found juxta-proximal of the calcium phosphate (CaP) granules suggesting that CaP may have triggered the 'osteoinductive program'. Indeed, removal of the CaP granules by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid decalcification prior to cell seeding and implantation resulted in loss of bone formation. In addition, inhibition of endogenous bone morphogenetic protein and Wnt signalling by overexpression of the secreted antagonists Noggin and Frzb, respectively, also abrogated osteoinduction. Proliferation of the engrafted HPDCs was strongly reduced in the decalcified scaffolds or when seeded with adenovirus-Noggin/Frzb transduced HPDCs indicating that cell division of the engrafted HPDCs is required for the direct bone formation cascade. These data suggest that this model of bone formation is similar to that observed during physiological intramembranous bone development and may be of importance when investigating tissue engineering strategies.Published versio

    The Wnt Antagonist Frzb-1 Regulates Chondrocyte Maturation and Long Bone Development during Limb Skeletogenesis

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    AbstractThe Wnt antagonist Frzb-1 is expressed during limb skeletogenesis, but its roles in this complex multistep process are not fully understood. To address this issue, we determined Frzb-1 gene expression patterns during chick long bone development and carried out gain- and loss-of-function studies by misexpression of Frzb-1, Wnt-8 (a known Frzb-1 target), or different forms of the intracellular Wnt mediator LEF-1 in developing limbs and cultured chondrocytes. Frzb-1 expression was quite strong in mesenchymal prechondrogenic condensations and then characterized epiphyseal articular chondrocytes and prehypertrophic chondrocytes in growth plates. Virally driven Frzb-1 misexpression caused shortening of skeletal elements, joint fusion, and delayed chondrocyte maturation, with consequent inhibition of matrix mineralization, metalloprotease expression, and marrow/bone formation. In good agreement, misexpression of Frzb-1 or a dominant-negative form of LEF-1 in cultured chondrocytes maintained the cells at an immature stage. Instead, misexpression of Wnt-8 or a constitutively active LEF-1 strongly promoted chondrocyte maturation, hypertrophy, and calcification. Immunostaining revealed that the distribution of endogenous Wnt mediator β-catenin changes dramatically in vivo and in vitro, from largely cytoplasmic in immature proliferating and prehypertrophic chondrocytes to nuclear in hypertrophic mineralizing chondrocytes. Misexpression of Frzb-1 prevented β-catenin nuclear relocalization in chondrocytes in vivo or in vitro. The data demonstrate that Frzb-1 exerts a strong influence on limb skeletogenesis and is a powerful and direct modulator of chondrocyte maturation, phenotype, and function. Phases of skeletogenesis, such as terminal chondrocyte maturation and joint formation, appear to be particularly dependent on Wnt signaling and thus very sensitive to Frzb-1 antagonistic action

    Olfactory ensheathing cells abutting the embryonic olfactory bulb express Frzb, whose deletion disrupts olfactory axon targeting.

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    We and others previously showed that in mouse embryos lacking the transcription factor Sox10, olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC) differentiation is disrupted, resulting in defective olfactory axon targeting and fewer gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons entering the embryonic forebrain. The underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here, we report that OECs in the olfactory nerve layer express Frzb-encoding a secreted Wnt inhibitor with roles in axon targeting and basement membrane breakdown-from embryonic day (E)12.5, when GnRH neurons first enter the forebrain, until E16.5, the latest stage examined. The highest levels of Frzb expression are seen in OECs in the inner olfactory nerve layer, abutting the embryonic olfactory bulb. We find that Sox10 is required for Frzb expression in OECs, suggesting that loss of Frzb could explain the olfactory axon targeting and/or GnRH neuron migration defects seen in Sox10-null mice. At E16.5, Frzb-null embryos show significant reductions in both the volume of the olfactory nerve layer expressing the maturation marker Omp and the number of Omp-positive olfactory receptor neurons in the olfactory epithelium. As Omp upregulation correlates with synapse formation, this suggests that Frzb deletion indeed disrupts olfactory axon targeting. In contrast, GnRH neuron entry into the forebrain is not significantly affected. Hence, loss of Frzb may contribute to the olfactory axon targeting phenotype, but not the GnRH neuron phenotype, of Sox10-null mice. Overall, our results suggest that Frzb secreted from OECs in the olfactory nerve layer is important for olfactory axon targeting

    Paradigm Shifts In Neural Induction

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    The molecularization of developmental biology was originally seen as a challenge to the integrity of that discipline. However, important new insights from the analysis of gene expression soon transformed the field from one of experimental anatomy to one of developmental genetics. One of the main areas to be transformed from an anatomical to a molecular study was « primary embryonic induction ». The molecular analyses showed that some of the fundamental concepts concluded from the experimental embryological approach to primary embryonic induction were false. First, the neural fate of cells was not being induced. Rather, the epidermal fate was induced and the neural state was the default, uninduced, fate of ectodermal tissues. Second, primary embryonic induction was not something unique to vertebrates. Rather, the ventral neural cord of insects formed using the same mechanisms as the dorsal neural tube of vertebrates. Third, the brain formed in a matter distinctly different from that of the spinal cord. Despite these differences, there has been a clear and strong continuity between the experimental embryological tradition and the molecular genetic tradition, and these new results are seen by many contemporary developmental geneticists as strengthening, rather than destroying, the older science

    Frzb modulates Wnt-9a-mediated β-catenin signaling during avian atrioventricular cardiac cushion development

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    AbstractNormal development of the cardiac atrioventricular (AV) endocardial cushions is essential for proper ventricular septation and morphogenesis of the mature mitral and tricuspid valves. In this study, we demonstrate spatially restricted expression of both Wnt-9a (formerly Wnt-14) and the secreted Wnt antagonist Frzb in AV endocardial cushions of the developing chicken heart. Wnt-9a expression is detected only in AV canal endocardial cells, while Frzb expression is detected in both endocardial and transformed mesenchymal cells of the developing AV cardiac cushions. We present evidence that Wnt-9a promotes cell proliferation in the AV canal and overexpression of Wnt-9a in ovo results in enlarged endocardial cushions and AV inlet obstruction. Wnt-9a stimulates β-catenin-responsive transcription in AV canal cells, duplicates the embryonic axis upon ventral injections in Xenopus embryos and appears to regulate cell proliferation by activating a Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Additional functional studies reveal that Frzb inhibits Wnt-9a-mediated cell proliferation in cardiac cushions. Together, these data argue that Wnt-9a and Frzb regulate mesenchymal cell proliferation leading to proper AV canal cushion outgrowth and remodeling in the developing avian heart

    Dickkopf-3 is upregulated in osteoarthritis and has a chondroprotective role

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    Objective Dickkopf-3 (Dkk3) is a non-canonical member of the Dkk family of Wnt antagonists and its upregulation has been reported in microarray analysis of cartilage from mouse models of osteoarthritis (OA). In this study we assessed Dkk3 expression in human OA cartilage to ascertain its potential role in chondrocyte signaling and cartilage maintenance. Methods Dkk3 expression was analysed in human adult OA cartilage and synovial tissues and during chondrogenesis of ATDC5 and human mesenchymal stem cells. The role of Dkk3 in cartilage maintenance was analysed by incubation of bovine and human cartilage explants with interleukin-1 (IL1) and oncostatin-M (OSM). Dkk3 expression was measured in cartilage following murine hip avulsion. Whether Dkk3 influenced Wnt, TGF and activin cell signaling was assessed in primary human chondrocytes and SW1353 chondrosarcoma cells using RT-qPCR and luminescence assays. Results Increased gene and protein levels of Dkk3 were detected in human OA cartilage, synovial tissue and synovial fluid. DKK3 expression was decreased during chondrogenesis of both ATDC5 cells and humans MSCs. Dkk3 inhibited IL1 and OSM-mediated proteoglycan loss from human and bovine cartilage explants and collagen loss from bovine cartilage explans. Cartilage DKK3 expression was decreased following hip avulsion injury. TGF signaling was enhanced by Dkk3 and Wnt3a and activin signaling were inhibited. Conclusions We provide evidence that Dkk3 is upregulated in OA and may have a protective effect on cartilage integrity by preventing proteoglycan loss and helping to restore OA-relevant signaling pathway activity. Targeting Dkk3 may be a novel approach in the treatment of OA
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