199,801 research outputs found

    Expression of transforming growth factor-beta isoforms and their receptors in chronic tendinosis

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    Chronic tendon lesions are degenerative conditions and may represent a failure to repair or remodel the extracellular matrix after repeated micro-injury. Since TGF-ß is strongly associated with tissue repair, we investigated the expression of TGF-ß isoforms (ß1, ß2 and ß3) and their 2 signalling receptors (TGF-ßRI and TGF-ßRII) in normal and pathological Achilles tendons. In all tissues, all 3 TGF-ß isoforms and the 2 receptors were present at sites of blood vessels. Cells in the matrix showed no staining for TGF-ß1 or ß3, while TGF-ß2 was associated with cells throughout the normal cadaver tendon. Tissue from tendons with pathological lesions showed an increase in cell numbers and percentage TGF-ß2 expression. TGF-ßRII showed a wide distribution in cells throughout the tissue sections. As with TGF-ß2, there was an increase in the number of cells expressing TGF-ßRII in pathological tissue. TGF-ßRI was restricted to blood vessels and was absent from the fibrillar matrix. We conclude that despite the presence and upregulation of TGF-ß2, TGF-ß signalling is not propagated due to the lack of TGF-ßRI. This might explain why chronic tendon lesions fail to resolve and suggests that the addition of exogenous TGF-ß will have little effect on chronic tendinopathy

    The frequency of transforming growth factor-TGF-B gene polymorphisms in a normal southern Iranian population

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    Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the transforming growth factor-β1 gene (TGFB1) have been reported. Determination of TGFB1 SNPs allele frequencies in different ethnic groups is useful for both population genetic analyses and association studies with immunological diseases. In this study, five SNPs of TGFB1 were determined in 325 individuals from a normal southern Iranian population using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. This population was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for these SNPs. Of the 12 constructed haplotypes, GTCGC and GCTGC were the most frequent in the normal southern Iranian population. Comparison of genotype and allele frequencies of TGFB SNPs between Iranian and other populations (meta-analysis) showed significant differences, and in this case the southern Iranian population seems genetically similar to Caucasoid populations. However, neighbour-joining tree using Nei's genetic distances based on TGF-β1 allele frequencies showed that southern Iranians are genetically far from people from the USA, Germany, UK, Denmark and the Czech Republic. In conclusion, this is the first report of the distribution of TGFB1 SNPs in an Iranian population and the results of this investigation may provide useful information for both population genetic and disease studies. © 2008 The Authors

    Transforming growth factor-beta stimulation of lung fibroblast prostaglandin E2 production.

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    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF beta) stimulated the production of total protein, collagen, and fibronectin by normal human lung fibroblasts. The stimulatory response was maximal at 100 pM TGF beta and reversed toward control at higher concentrations. Inhibition of fibroblast prostaglandin (PG) synthesis enhanced TGF beta-induced stimulation of total protein, collagen, and fibronectin production and reversed the negative slope of the dose-response curve at high concentrations of TGF beta. Determination of the steady-state levels of Types I and III procollagens and fibronectin mRNAs employing specific cDNA probes demonstrated that inhibition of fibroblast PG production increased the stimulatory effect of TGF beta on the levels of these transcripts. Exogenous PGE2 abrogated the stimulatory effects of TGF beta. These findings suggest that fibroblast stimulation by TGF beta may be down-regulated by endogenous PG synthesized in response to TGF beta. This notion was supported by the demonstration that TGF beta markedly stimulated fibroblast PGE2 production. These results indicate that TGF beta-induced stimulation of fibroblast PGE2 production may be an autoregulatory control mechanism to limit the effects of TGF beta on connective tissue protein synthesis

    Gene Expression and the Physiological Role of Transforming Growth Factor-α in the Mouse Pituitary

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    Transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha), a member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family, is produced within the mouse anterior pituitaries. However, the cell types of TGF-alpha-expressing cells and the physiological roles of TGF-a within mouse pituitary glands remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to localize TGF-alpha mRNA-expressing cells, and to clarify the involvement of TGF-alpha in estrogen-induced DNA replication in mouse anterior pituitary cells. Northern blot analysis demonstrated TGF-alpha mRNA expression in adult male and female mouse anterior pituitaries. In situ hybridization analysis of the pituitaries in these mice showed that TGF-alpha mRNA-expressing cells in the anterior pituitary are round, oval, and medium-sized. TGF-alpha mRNA was colocalized in most of the growth hormone (GH) mRNA-expressing cells, while only some of the prolactin (PRL) mRNA-expressing cells. DNA replication in the anterior pituitary cells was detected by monitoring the cellular uptake of a thymidine analogue, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) in a primary serum-free culture system. Estradiol-17beta (E2) and TGF-alpha treatment increased the number of BrdU-labelled mammotrophs, indicating that E2 and TGF-alpha treatment stimulates the DNA replication in mammotrophs. Immunoneutralization of TGF-alpha with anti-TGF-alpha-antibodies nullified the E2-induced increase in DNA replication. RT-PCR analysis of TGF-alpha mRNA expression in ovariectomized female mice revealed that E2 increases TGF-alpha mRNA levels. These results indicate that the TGF-alpha produced primarily in the somatotrophs mediates the stimulatory effects of estrogen on the DNA replication of pituitary cells in a paracrine or autocrine manner