Ardabil University of Medical Sciences

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    6257 research outputs found

    Prevalence and Seasonal Activity of Ticks Infesting Livestock in North West Areas of Iran

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    Background: The livestock sector represents a significant part of the global economy, particularly in the developing world. Tick infestation and tick-borne zoonoses affect people living in the countryside in developed and developing countries and causes serious health problems. Aim: To determine of Prevalence and seasonal activity of ticks infesting livestock in northwest areas. Methods: This study was conducted in two village of western Meshkin Shahr Ardabil province of Iran. Ticks were collected via dragging method randomly from cattle, sheep, buffalo and goat. Results: Five species of hard ticks (Rhipicephalus bursa n=82), (Hyalomma anatolicum n=35), (Hy.dermodarii n=24), (Hy.detritumn=12) and Hy.marginatum n=82), 2 species of soft ticks (Ornithodoros lahorensis n=72) and Argas persicus n=6) were collected. During the survey, a total of 3,114 ticks were collected from different locations and majority of ticks (2432, 78%) were collected in summer followed by 682 (22%) in winter. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS-16 software. Conclusions: Hy.marginatum the main vector of CCHF in this study was the high frequency and ticks infesting livestock was high in Northwest of Iran

    Factors Affecting on Establishment of Health System Reform Plan in Ardabil Province

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    Background & objectives: In today's world, health has wider prospect and special attention has been paid to non-medical expectations. The health care reform plan aims to improve community health, reduce treatment costs and increase the satisfaction of patients. The aim of this paper was to identify the factors influencing the development of health system in Ardabil province. Methods: This mixed-methods study was performed in two stages. In the first stage, comprehensive literature review was carried out and important factors in establishment of health system reform in the world were discovered. In the second stage and using the first stage findings, the questionnaires were completed by 185 experts and administrators of health development plan in Ardabil province who were selected by non-random purposeful sampling and local factors affecting the establishment of the plan in the province hospitals were obtained. Lisrel software was used for factor analysis . Results: The most important indicators of development of health care system were as follows: political support, providing and promoting community participation, management and resource assurance, satisfaction guarantee for paramedics, commitment of senior executives, commitment of interested physicians, continuous monitoring and evaluating and providing the feedback to project executives, existence of infrastructure and project steering committee. The results of structural equation modeling showed the relationship between independent and dependent variables. Conclusion: The study modeling indicators showed that, the proposed model is in good agreement. It seems that paying attention to regional indicators and variables is very important in the formulation and implementation of strategic plans and has a decisive role in achieving the goals

    Global and regional burden of cancer in 2016 arising from occupational exposure to selected carcinogens: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016

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    Objectives This study provides a detailed analysis of the global and regional burden of cancer due to occupational carcinogens from the Global Burden of Disease 2016 study. Methods The burden of cancer due to 14 International Agency for Research on Cancer Group 1 occupational carcinogens was estimated using the population attributable fraction, based on past population exposure prevalence and relative risks from the literature. The results were used to calculate attributable deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Results There were an estimated 349 000 (95% Uncertainty Interval 269 000 to 427 000) deaths and 7.2 (5.8 to 8.6) million DALYs in 2016 due to exposure to the included occupational carcinogens—3.9% (3.2% to 4.6%) of all cancer deaths and 3.4% (2.7% to 4.0%) of all cancer DALYs; 79% of deaths were of males and 88% were of people aged 55 –79 years. Lung cancer accounted for 86% of the deaths, mesothelioma for 7.9% and laryngeal cancer for 2.1%. Asbestos was responsible for the largest number of deaths due to occupational carcinogens (63%); other important risk factors were secondhand smoke (14%), silica (14%) and diesel engine exhaust (5%). The highest mortality rates were in high-income regions, largely due to asbestos-related cancers, whereas in other regions cancer deaths from secondhand smoke, silica and diesel engine exhaust were more prominent. From 1990 to 2016, there was a decrease in the rate for deaths (−10%) and DALYs (−15%) due to exposure to occupational carcinogens. Conclusions Work-related carcinogens are responsible for considerable disease burden worldwide. The results provide guidance for prevention and control initiatives

    Degradation of azo dye Acid Red 14 (AR14) from aqueous solution using H2O2/nZVI and S2O82–/nZVI processes in the presence of UV irradiation

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    Azo dyes are mostly toxic and carcinogenic and cause harm to humans and the environment. This study was conducted to investigate the degradation of azo dye acid red 14 (AR14) from aqueous solution using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)/nano zerovalent iron (nZVI) and persulfate (S2O8 2–)/nZVI processes in the presence of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. This experimental study was carried out in a laboratory-scale batch photoreactor with a useful volume of 1 L. The nZVI was synthesized by the sodium borohydride (NaBH4) reduction method. In these processes, the effects of parameters including initial pH, H2O2 concentration, S2O8 2– concentration, nZVI dose, concentration of AR14 dye, and reaction time were studied. The results showed that decolorization increased by increasing the nZVI dosage, H2O2 and S2O4 2- concentrations, and reaction time, or decreasing dye concentration and pH. However, a too high oxidant concentration (H2O2 and S2O4 2-) could inhibit the degradation. The experimental conditions for degradation of AR14 by UV/S2O8 2-/nZVI and UV/H2O2/nZVI processes were as follows: [H2O2] = 10 mM, [S2O8 2–] = 8 mM, AB14 dye = 100 mg/L, pH = 3, and nZVI dose = 0.05 g. Under these conditions, the highest removal efficiencies of AR14, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and total organic carbon (TOC) for the UV/S2O8 2–/nZVI process were 93.94%, 86.5%, and 81.6%, respectively, while these values were 89.3%, 79.57%, and 72.9% for the UV/H2O2/nZVI, respectively. Also, the average oxidation state (AOS) was decreased from 2.93 to 2.14 in the effluent of the UV/S2O8 2–/nZVI process and from 2.93 to 2.2 for the UV/H2O2/nZVI process. The results showed that the ratio of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) to COD in the effluents of the UV/S2O8 2/nZVI and UV/H2O2/nZVI processes after 90 min was 0.63 and 0.74, respectively. These findings suggest biodegradability improvement. Practitioner points: Photocatalytic degradation of azo dye Acid Red 14 (AR14) was achieved using H2O2/nZVI and S2O8 2–/nZVI processes in the presence of UV irradiation. Effects of operating parameters on photocatalytic degradation AR14 dye were evaluated in the UV/H2O2/nZVI and UV/S2O8 2–/nZVI processes. Biodegradability and mineralization studies of AR14 dye photocatalytic degradation were performed for the UV/H2O2/nZVI and UV/S2O8 2–/nZVI processes. © 2020 Water Environment Federatio

    Effects of exposure to enriched environment during adolescence on passive avoidance memory, nociception, and prefrontal BDNF level in adult male and female rats

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    Previous studies demonstrated that an enriched environment (EE) exposure improves cognitive functions, synaptic plasticity, neurogenesis, and induction of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in multiple brain regions of laboratory animal models. Also, studies on the sex-dependent effects of exposure to EE during adolescence on adult cognitive functions are less. Therefore, the present experiment was aimed to assess the effects of EE during adolescence on passive avoidance learning and memory, nociception, and prefrontal cortex (PFC) BDNF mRNA levels in the adult male and female rats. Our results indicated that housing in the EE during adolescence improves passive avoidance memory and increases nociceptive response against thermal stimulus in both sexes. Findings of our study also showed an increased BDNF level in the PFC of female animals. As a result, sex differences can affect the expression of BDNF mRNA in the PFC. Further research concerning the precise mechanisms underlying sex hormone-dependent production of BDNF in PFC is critical. Previous articl

    Tranexamic Acid Effect on Migration Ability and the Level of Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/9 of T98G and HUVEC Cells in Co-Culture Condition

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    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The high infiltration rate of glioma cells into surrounding brain parenchyma is the reason for the treatment failure in glioblastoma. The interactions between glioblastoma and endothelial cells increase the migration capacity of cancerous cells. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of Tranexamic acid (TXA) on glioblastoma and endothelial cells migration and matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 (MMP-2 and MMP-9) levels in co-culture conditions. METHODS: In this experimental study, the T98G cancer cell line and HUVECs were obtained from the Pasteur Institute of Iran and treated alone or in co-culture conditions with TXA. The cell viability was measured using MTT assay. The migration rate was evaluated by creating a scratch in the culture plates and comparing the scratch area at different time intervals in the control and 6 and 24 mM TXA-treated groups. The MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels in the control and 6 mM TXA-treated cells were examined through zymography. FINDINGS: The viability of each cell line alone and T98G and HUVEC cells in co-culture conditions was reduced from 60 mM of TXA on (p=0.0001). The scratch size of 6 and 24 mM TXA-treated HUVECs following 36 hours of treatment was 0.27±0.05 and 0.36±0.04 of their initial scratch square that was significantly higher than the control group (p=0.034 and p=0.005, respectively). There was not a significant difference in the scratch size of T98G cells. The scratch size of co-culture control was 0.12±0.01 after 36 hours of the onset of the experiment. This was significantly lower than 6 (0.28±0.06) and 24 mM (0.39±0.07) TXA-treated T98G+HUVECs (p=0.01 and p=0.002, respectively). TXA administration significantly decreased the MMP-2 (p=000) and MMP-9 (p=000) levels in co-culture conditions. CONCLUSION: TXA could reduce glioblastoma and endothelial cell migration and MMP-2 and MMP-9 level in co-culture conditions

    Mephedrone as a new synthetic amphetamine induces abortion, morphological alterations and mitochondrial dysfunction in mouse embryos

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    We have studied the embryo-fetal toxicity of mephedrone in mice during organogenesis period on gestation day (GD) 6–15 in mice during organogenesis period intraperitoneally. Our observation showed that mephedrone induces abortion, reduction in the weight, length and diameter of the placenta and fetus. Also, histopathological and mitochondrial examinations showed pathological and mitochondrial abnormalities in placenta, liver and brain. Our data showed that mephedrone (20 mg/kg) adversely affects embryo-fetal/development in mouse fetus due to mitochondrial toxicity. Hope these results would be helpful for awareness of mephedrone addicts and their families and also medical society about mephedrone for its probable embryo-fetal toxicity

    Need, seeking and utilization of health services among elderly in Ardabil -2019

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    Background: The increase in the elderly population in future years in Iran, the country's health system will face a serious challenge that can be managed in part by improving the function of service delivery based on benefit studies in the elderly population. Aim: In the present study, we evaluated the types of elderly needs and how to address and solve the problems related to them in the city of Ardabil and evaluated the type of needs and effective factors in addressing them in detail. Methods: The study population of the elderly in Ardabil was covered by the comprehensive health centers of Ardabil, which according to the latest national census in 2016, the elderly population of Ardabil is about 15 thousand people. The final sample size was 553 = 0.6 * 331, which finally entered the final stage of analysis after 291 incomplete questionnaires were dropped. Cluster random sampling method was used for sampling. From the comprehensive urban health center and rural bases of Ardabil city, 20 urban units were randomly selected and from the elderly population covered by each center and base, 15 elderly people (two clusters) were selected and the questionnaire was completed by referring to the door. Results: In our study that was performed on 291 elderly people in Ardabil. 222 (76.3%) were male and 69 (23.7%) were female. In terms of age distribution, the highest number with 126 people (43.3%) belonged to the age group of 65 to 69 years. More than 70% of the elderly in our study in the past month mentioned the need for outpatient health services, which was higher among men (73.4% vs. 62.3% in women) and with age. It was more. The highest sense of need was mentioned in the group with armed forces insurance (82.4%). The elderly who had supplementary insurance felt significantly more in need than those without supplementary insurance (75.1% vs. 63.2%). In terms of the need for inpatient services during the past year, the highest sense of need was observed in men (48.2% vs. 27.9% of women). The results showed that men felt more need for inpatient services (P = 0.029, OR = 4.41) and outpatient services (P = 0.018, OR = 3.955) than women. The results also showed that having insurance other than health insurance increases the search and benefit of services (P = 0.002, OR = 0.283). Conclusion: The aim of this study was to investigate the feeling of need, search and benefit of outpatient and inpatient services by the elderly in Ardabil. Finally, the present study showed that more than 70% of the elderly felt the need for outpatient services, of which more than 98 Percentage went to receive services and about 84% had benefited from the services. The study showed that obstacles such as lack of insurance coverage, belief in self-medication, etc. prevented full use of services. Based on this, it was found that older men with insurance other than health insurance felt more in need than other groups, and in terms of using services, men showed a better chance of using services than women. Accordingly, it is necessary to consider special policies for the elderly in order to remove the barriers to the use of services based on variables such as facilitating access to services and increasing insurance coverag

    Preparation and Evaluation of Nanostructured Lipid Carriers (NLC) Loaded with Repaglinide and Coated with Chitosan Polymer

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    Introduction: Diabetes is a disease that caused by continual high blood sugar level. Antidiabetic drugs are used to control the blood sugar level in type 2 diabetes. Rapaglinide is an oral antidiabetic drug that is practicaly insoluble in water and has a short elimination half-life time. Furthermore, the extent of bioavailability of this drug is low and so novel drug delivery systems (NDDS) were used to overcome these problems. Nanocarriers are of the most important examples of NDDS. In this study, it was tried to load repaglinide into nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) with coated with chitosan polymer and then the effect of developing such structure has been investigated on physicochemical and biological properties of drug. Methods: To preparthe NLC nanoparticles, two distinct ethanolic and aqueous solutions were prepared. The ethanolic solution contained lipidic components and the drug. The aqeous phase composed from water and surfactant/stabilizer. Next, the alcohol phase was pored dropwise into the aqueous phase under stirring condition. The effects of different parameters such as concentration of stearic acid, glyceryl mono stearate, oleic acid and tween 80, on quality, morphology and nanoparticles size was investigated and these parameters were optimized. After that, the properties of prepared nanoparticles were investigated by using various techniques including Fourier Transfer Infra Red (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Thermal Gravimetric Analysis/Differential Thermal Gravimetric (TGA/DTA) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). The concentration of repaglinide was determined and calibrated by spectrophotometric method (UV-Vis spectrometry). The drug release profile from pure drug and nanocarrier-loaded drug was determined using dialysis bag method. Furthermore, oral administration of drug to mouses was done and the effect of loading the drug on the blood sugar level of mices was evaluated through blood sampling from tail vein. Results, discussion and conclusion: The size of nanostructured lipid carriers was verified in nano scale (less than 100 nm) diameters. Effect of various parameters on nanoparticles size were evaluated and based on the obtained results, increasing the stearic acid concentration (SA) lead to the increase in the lipid carrier particles size and furthermore increase in concentration of glycerol mono stearate (GMS) caused to the decrease of particles size. After optimizing of conditions and preparation of particles in nano scales, based on obtained FTIR results, the presence of electrostatic bonds indicated the chemical interaction between carboxylic group of stearate on the surface of NLC and amin group of chitosan polymer chains and therefore, formation of chitosan coating was proved. The results of TGA analysis represented that after loading thenanostructured lipid carriers loaded with repaglinide and coating with chitosan, the thermal stability and also the mechanical and chemical stabilities were increased remarkably. SEM images showed that nanostructured lipid carriers containing drug has spherical morphology and chitosan layer was located in the form of long strings around it. Releasing results showed that the release of repaglinide in chitosan-coated nanostructures lipid carriers is significantly slower than common nanoparticles without any coating and also the release of drug in this nanoparticles occurred in longer times rather than in nanoparticles without coating which were reached to steady level more quickly.The invivo study through oral administration of samples to mouses showed that simple repaglinide can decrease the blood sugar, but this effect in nano-repaglinide samples was significantly more than simple drug samples. Also, the duration of action of nano-drugs was longer than pure drug sample


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