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    The 5'-3' exoribonuclease Pacman (Xrn1) regulates expression of the heat shock protein Hsp67Bc and the microRNA miR-277-3p in Drosophila wing imaginal discs

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    Pacman/Xrn1 is a highly conserved exoribonuclease known to play a critical role in gene regulatory events such as control of mRNA stability, RNA interference and regulation via miRNAs. Although Pacman has been well studied in Drosophila tissue culture cells, the biologically relevant cellular pathways controlled by Pacman in natural tissues are unknown. This study shows that a hypomorphic mutation in pacman (pcm5) results in smaller wing imaginal discs. These tissues, found in the larva, are known to grow and differentiate to form wing and thorax structures in the adult fly. Using microarray analysis, followed by quantitative RT-PCR, we show that eight mRNAs were increased in level by >2 fold in the pcm5 mutant wing discs compared to the control. The levels of pre mRNAs were tested for five of these mRNAs; four did not increase in the pcm5 mutant, showing that they are regulated at the post-transcriptional level and therefore could be directly affected by Pacman. These transcripts include one that encodes the heat-shock protein Hsp67Bc, which is upregulated 11.9-fold at the post-transcriptional level and 2.3-fold at the protein level. One miRNA, miR-277-3p, is 5.6-fold downregulated at the post-transcriptional level in mutant discs, suggesting that Pacman affects its processing in this tissue. Together, these data show that a relatively small number of mRNAs and miRNAs substantially change in abundance in pacman mutant wing imaginal discs. Since Hsp67Bc is known to regulate autophagy and protein synthesis, it is possible that Pacman may control the growth of wing imaginal discs by regulating these processes

    Telehealth Implementation Using an Online Meeting Application for the Remote Area Health Services

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    The increase of population growth in Indonesia is followed by greater demand of health professionals, especially medical doctors. Currently, ratio between number of doctors and patients in Indonesia is still below the normal line that leads to less health care. On the other hand, health care introduces cost aspect moreover for the patients living in remote areas experiencing the problem by the distance to the health services. This study proposes the technique to overcome these constraints through the implementation of telehealth using an online meeting application of Team Viewer. The subjects used for the research study are doctors, nurses and patients in a clinician to patient consultation scenario, using video teleconferencing support based on the online meeting application of Team Viewer. To justify the success of the tested model, this research has collected the perception data of the subject at ease aspects of the consultation process. From the work done, the results show that the telehealth model using an online meeting application is easily implemented and give a positive perception of the doctor and the patient

    Crystal structure of Schmallenberg orthobunyavirus nucleoprotein-RNA complex reveals a novel RNA sequestration mechanism

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    Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is a newly emerged orthobunyavirus (family Bunyaviridae) that has caused severe disease in the offspring of farm animals across Europe. Like all orthobunyaviruses, SBV contains a tripartite negative-sense RNA genome that is encapsidated by the viral nucleocapsid (N) protein in the form of a ribonucleoprotein complex (RNP). We recently reported the three-dimensional structure of SBV N that revealed a novel fold. Here we report the crystal structure of the SBV N protein in complex with a 42-nt-long RNA to 2.16 Å resolution. The complex comprises a tetramer of N that encapsidates the RNA as a cross-shape inside the protein ring structure, with each protomer bound to 11 ribonucleotides. Eight bases are bound in the positively charged cleft between the N- and C-terminal domains of N, and three bases are shielded by the extended N-terminal arm. SBV N appears to sequester RNA using a different mechanism compared with the nucleoproteins of other negative-sense RNA viruses. Furthermore, the structure suggests that RNA binding results in conformational changes of some residues in the RNA-binding cleft and the N- and C-terminal arms. Our results provide new insights into the novel mechanism of RNA encapsidation by orthobunyaviruses

    Evolutionary Dynamics and Optimization: Neutral Networks as Model-Landscapes for RNA Secondary-Structure Folding-Landscapes

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    We view the folding of RNA-sequences as a map that assigns a pattern of base pairings to each sequence, known as secondary structure. These preimages can be constructed as random graphs (i.e. the neutral networks associated to the structure ss). By interpreting the secondary structure as biological information we can formulate the so called Error Threshold of Shapes as an extension of Eigen's et al. concept of an error threshold in the single peak landscape. Analogue to the approach of Derrida & Peliti for a of the population on the neutral network. On the one hand this model of a single shape landscape allows the derivation of analytical results, on the other hand the concept gives rise to study various scenarios by means of simulations, e.g. the interaction of two different networks. It turns out that the intersection of two sets of compatible sequences (with respect to the pair of secondary structures) plays a key role in the search for ''fitter'' secondary structures.Comment: 20 pages, uuencoded compressed postscript-file, Proc. of ECAL '95 conference, to appear., email: chris @ imb-jena.d

    Cellular mRNAs access second ORFs using a novel amino acid sequence-dependent coupled translation termination-reinitiation mechanism

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    Polycistronic transcripts are considered rare in the human genome. Initiation of translation of internal ORFs of eukaryotic genes has been shown to use either leaky scanning or highly structured IRES regions to access initiation codons. Studies on mammalian viruses identified a mechanism of coupled translation termination-reinitiation that allows translation of an additional ORF. Here, the ribosome terminating translation of ORF-1 translocates upstream to reinitiate translation of ORF-2. We have devised an algorithm to identify mRNAs in the human transcriptome in which the major ORF-1 overlaps a second ORF capable of encoding a product of at least 50 aa in length. This identified 4368 transcripts representing 2214 genes. We investigated 24 transcripts, 22 of which were shown to express a protein from ORF-2 highlighting that 3' UTRs contain protein-coding potential more frequently than previously suspected. Five transcripts accessed ORF-2 using a process of coupled translation termination-reinitiation. Analysis of one transcript, encoding the CASQ2 protein, showed that the mechanism by which the coupling process of the cellular mRNAs was achieved was novel. This process was not directed by the mRNA sequence but required an aspartate-rich repeat region at the carboxyl terminus of the terminating ORF-1 protein. Introduction of wobble mutations for the aspartate codon had no effect, whereas replacing aspartate for glutamate repeats eliminated translational coupling. This is the first description of a coordinated expression of two proteins from cellular mRNAs using a coupled translation termination-reinitiation process and is the first example of such a process being determined at the amino acid level

    Hfq binding changes the structure of Escherichia coli small noncoding RNAs OxyS and RprA, which are involved in the riboregulation of rpoS

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    OxyS and RprA are two small noncoding RNAs (sRNAs) that modulate the expression of rpoS, encoding an alternative sigma factor that activates transcription of multiple Escherichia coli stress-response genes. While RprA activates rpoS for translation, OxyS down-regulates the transcript. Crucially, the RNA binding protein Hfq is required for both sRNAs to function, although the specific role played by Hfq remains unclear. We have investigated RprA and OxyS interactions with Hfq using biochemical and biophysical approaches. In particular, we have obtained the molecular envelopes of the Hfq–sRNA complexes using small-angle scattering methods, which reveal key molecular details. These data indicate that Hfq does not substantially change shape upon complex formation, whereas the sRNAs do. We link the impact of Hfq binding, and the sRNA structural changes induced, to transcript stability with respect to RNase E degradation. In light of these findings, we discuss the role of Hfq in the opposing regulatory functions played by RprA and OxyS in rpoS regulation