13,143 research outputs found

    Revisão taxonómica do género Calendula L. (Asteraceae - Calenduleae) na Península Ibérica e Marrocos

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    The genus Calendula L. (Asteraceae - Calenduleae) includes, depending on the author, 10 to 25 species, distributed mainly in the Mediterranean basin. The taxonomy of this genus is considered to be extremely difficult, due to a great morphological variability, doubtfull relevance of some of the characters used to distinguish its species (e.g. the life form: annual or perennial; the habit: erect or diffuse, shape of the leaves, indumentum, relative size of the capitula and colour of disc or ray florets, achene morphology), but also due to the hybridization and polyploidization. Despite the numerous studies that have been published, no agreement on the classification and characters used to discriminate between taxa has been reached. A taxonomic study of the genus Calendula was conducted for the Iberian Peninsula and Morocco, aiming at (1) access the morphological variability between and within taxa, (2) confirm the chromosome numbers, (3) increase the nuclear DNA content estimations, (4) re-evaluate taxa delimitations and circumscription, and (5) reassess, and redefine, the descriptions and characters useful to distinguish taxa. In order to achieve a satisfying taxonomic core, extensive fieldwork, detailed morphometric analysis, chorological, karyological and genome size studies were conducted. For the Iberian Peninsula, four species were recognized, including nine subspecies (between these two new subspecies were described). For Morocco, including some taxa from Algeria and Tunisia 13 species were recognized (two new species and a nomenclatural change), including 15 subspecies (among these eight new subspecies were described). To corroborate the results obtained and to evaluate the evolutionary relationships among taxa, phylogenetic studies using molecular methods, such as ITS, microsatellites or other molecular markers, should be used.O género Calendula L. (Asteraceae - Calenduleae) inclui, dependendo do autor, 10 a 25 espécies, distribuídas essencialmente na bacia do Mediterrâneo. A taxonomia deste género é considerada extremamente difícil, devido à grande variabilidade morfológica, discutivel relevância de alguns dos caracteres utilizados para distinguir suas espécies (por exemplo, a forma de vida: anual ou perene, o hábito: erecto ou difuso, a forma das folhas, o indumento, o tamanho e a cor dos capítulos e a morfologia dos aquénios), mas também devido à hibridização e poliploidização. Apesar dos inúmeros estudos que foram publicados, não foi alcançado um acordo sobre a classificação e os caracteres utilizados para discriminar as suas espécies. Um estudo taxonómico do género Calendula foi realizado para a Península Ibérica e Marrocos, com o objectivo de (1) verificar a variabilidade morfológica, (2) confirmar o número de cromossomas, (3) aumentar as estimativas de conteúdo em ADN, (4) reavaliar a delimitação e a circunscrição dos taxa, e (5) reavaliar e redefinir as descrições e caracteres úteis para os distinguir. Para alcançar uma robustês taxonómica satisfatória, foram realizados extensos trabalhos de campo, análise morfométrica detalhada, abordagens corológicas, cariológicas e quanto ao conteúdo em ADN. Para a Península Ibérica, quatro espécies foram reconhecidas, incluindo nove subespécies (entre essas duas novas subespécies foram descritas). Para Marrocos, incluindo alguns taxa da Argelia e Tunisia, foram reconhecidas 13 espécies (duas novas e uma mudança nomenclatural), incluindo 15 subespécies (entre essas oito novas subespécies foram descritas). Para corroborar os resultados obtidos e avaliar as relações evolutivas e filogenéticas entre os taxa, estudos que utilizem diferentes métodos moleculares, tais como ITS, microsatélites ou outros marcadores moleculares, devem ser utilizados.Apoio financeiro do Laboratório Associado CESAM - Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar (AMB/50017) financiado por fundos nacionais através da FCT/MCTES e cofinanciado pelo FEDER (POCI-01-0145-FEDER-007638), no âmbito do Acordo de Parceria PT2020, e Compete 2020Programa Doutoral em Biologi

    Zingiber: synonymy, accepted and excluded species

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    Among the species of the Zingiberaceae family, ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is the best known and studied species, with several reported ornamental, medicinal and culinary properties. Many ornamental species of the genus Zingiber are commonly treated as gingers by analogy. This study provides a list of species of the genus Zingiber, information on synonyms and comments on ornamental aspects

    Return of the Tbx5; lineage-tracing reveals ventricular cardiomyocyte-like precursors in the injured adult mammalian heart

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    The single curative measure for heart failure patients is a heart transplantation, which is limited due to a shortage of donors, the need for immunosuppression and economic costs. Therefore, there is an urgent unmet need for identifying cell populations capable of cardiac regeneration that we will be able to trace and monitor. Injury to the adult mammalian cardiac muscle, often leads to a heart attack through the irreversible loss of a large number of cardiomyocytes, due to an idle regenerative capability. Recent reports in zebrafish indicate that Tbx5a is a vital transcription factor for cardiomyocyte regeneration. Preclinical data underscore the cardioprotective role of Tbx5 upon heart failure. Data from our earlier murine developmental studies have identified a prominent unipotent Tbx5-expressing embryonic cardiac precursor cell population able to form cardiomyocytes, in vivo, in vitro and ex vivo. Using a developmental approach to an adult heart injury model and by employing a lineage-tracing mouse model as well as the use of single-cell RNA-seq technology, we identify a Tbx5-expressing ventricular cardiomyocyte-like precursor population, in the injured adult mammalian heart. The transcriptional profile of that precursor cell population is closer to that of neonatal than embryonic cardiomyocyte precursors. Tbx5, a cardinal cardiac development transcription factor, lies in the center of a ventricular adult precursor cell population, which seems to be affected by neurohormonal spatiotemporal cues. The identification of a Tbx5-specific cardiomyocyte precursor-like cell population, which is capable of dedifferentiating and potentially deploying a cardiomyocyte regenerative program, provides a clear target cell population for translationally-relevant heart interventional studies

    Overcoming drug resistance: targeting the BCL-2 family and the long non-coding RNA HCP5 in medulloblastoma and colorectal cancer

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    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers in the UK and medulloblastoma is a common cancer found in children. While there has been a progressive improvement in treatment outcomes, success has been marred by drug resistance and severe side effects. Therefore, this project focused on two aspects of chemotherapeutic drug resistance, the first using the antimitotic agent vincristine in combination with inhibitors of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins, while the second investigated the role of the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), HCP5 in the resistance of cells to genotoxic agents. In the first part, three medulloblastoma cell lines (DAOY, MB03, ONS76) were analysed for the expression of Bcl-xL and ONS76 cells found to have the highest level of this anti-apoptotic protein. Subsequent results indicated that Bcl-xL encourages mitotic slippage and stemness and that knockdown of Bcl-xL in the high expressing ONS76 cells, reduces these and sensitizes the cells to the anti-mitotic agent vincristine. Thus, pharmacological inhibition of Bcl-xL should sensitize medulloblastoma cells to low doses of vincristine. Regarding the lncRNA HCP5, results showed that HCP5 was generally more highly expressed in a panel of CRC cell lines than the three medulloblastoma cell lines, corroborating data from an in-silico analysis for the corresponding tumours. One function of HCP5 is to translocate the multifunctional YB-1 protein from the cytoplasm to the nucleus where it carries out many of its functions. Knockdown of HCP5 followed by immunofluorescence indicated a reduction in the amount of YB-1 in the nucleus, confirming this function. Subsequently, HCP5 silencing sensitized all cell lines tested to the DNA damaging agents, cisplatin, oxaliplatin and tert-butyl hydroperoxide and also resulted in an increase in double-strand breaks as determined by H2AX formation. Finally, fluorescence activated cell sorting using Annexin V and propidium iodide confirmed a decrease in cell viability in HCP5 knockdown cells following treatment with genotoxic agents and that this was mirrored by an increased apoptotic fraction. Together, these studies indicate the possibilities of using novel therapeutics to increase the functionality of existing treatments to combat acquired drug resistance in cancer patients

    Phenotypic and molecular analyses in diploid and tetraploid genotypes of Solanum tuberosum L. reveal promising genotypes and candidate genes associated with phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid contents, and antioxidant activity

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    Potato tubers contain biochemical compounds with antioxidant properties that benefit human health. However, the genomic basis of the production of antioxidant compounds in potatoes has largely remained unexplored. Therefore, we report the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) based on 4488 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and the phenotypic evaluation of Total Phenols Content (TPC), Ascorbic Acid Content (AAC), and Antioxidant Activity (AA) traits in 404 diverse potato genotypes (84 diploids and 320 tetraploids) conserved at the Colombian germplasm bank that administers AGROSAVIA. The concentration of antioxidant compounds correlated to the skin tuber color and ploidy level. Especially, purple-blackish tetraploid tubers had the highest TPC (2062.41 ± 547.37 mg GAE), while diploid pink-red tubers presented the highest AA (DDPH: 14967.1 ± 4687.79 μmol TE; FRAP: 2208.63 ± 797.35 mg AAE) and AAC (4.52 mg ± 0.68 AA). The index selection allowed us to choose 20 promising genotypes with the highest values for the antioxidant compounds. Genome Association mapping identified 58 SNP-Trait Associations (STAs) with single-locus models and 28 Quantitative Trait Nucleotide (QTNs) with multi-locus models associated with the evaluated traits. Among models, eight STAs/QTNs related to TPC, AAC, and AA were detected in common, flanking seven candidate genes, from which four were pleiotropic. The combination in one population of diploid and tetraploid genotypes enabled the identification of more genetic associations. However, the GWAS analysis implemented independently in populations detected some regions in common between diploids and tetraploids not detected in the mixed population. Candidate genes have molecular functions involved in phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid biosynthesis, and antioxidant responses concerning plant abiotic stress. All candidate genes identified in this study can be used for further expression analysis validation and future implementation in marker-assisted selection pre-breeding platforms targeting fortified materials. Our study further revealed the importance of potato germplasm conserved in national genebanks, such as AGROSAVIA’s, as a valuable genetic resource to improve existing potato varieties

    General Aspects and Applications of Plant Genome Editing: Advancements in Recombinant Protein Production and Viral Vaccine Efficiency through CRISPR/Cas9-Edited N. benthamiana

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    The implementation of plant-based antigen manufacturing methodologies has accelerated vaccine research by providing a cost-effective, scalable, and safe alternative to traditional protein production systems. This master thesis provides an updated review of recent advances in plant-based protein production platforms, with an emphasis on recombinant proteins generated from CRISPR/Cas9 genome edited Nicotiana benthamiana plants. The first part of this review contains a brief utilization of the CRISPR technology in plant genome engineering, focusing on its advancements and challenges. The thesis includes an overview of various CRISPR applications in plant biology, a detailed assessment of recent advancements in transformation techniques, and an exploration of the challenges associated with sequencing in the context of genome editing. The second part focuses on the use of Nicotiana benthamiana as a model plant to produce recombinant proteins. This review examines the increases in immunogenicity achieved by these unique production platforms through a review of the most recent research. The review also covers the benefits of plant-based protein production platforms, such as cheaper production costs and faster response to emerging risks. The core findings show that plant-based antigen manufacturing methodologies can have an impact on existing protein production systems, potentially leading to the creation of improved vaccines with increased efficacy, safety, and accessibility. The review seeks to offer insights into the current state of research and prospects for using this plant for recombinant protein production, as well as discuss its wider impacts, implications, and future directions for vaccine development

    2023 Summer Experience Program Abstracts

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    https://openworks.mdanderson.org/sumexp23/1130/thumbnail.jp

    Turning Garlic into a Modern Crop: State of the Art and Perspectives

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    Garlic is cultivated worldwide for the value of its bulbs, but its cultivation is challenged by the infertility of commercial cultivars and the accumulation of pathogens over time, which occurs as a consequence of vegetative (clonal) propagation. In this review, we summarize the state of the art of garlic genetics and genomics, highlighting recent developments that will lead to its development as a modern crop, including the restoration of sexual reproduction in some garlic strains. The set of tools available to the breeder currently includes a chromosome-scale assembly of the garlic genome and multiple transcriptome assemblies that are furthering our understanding of the molecular processes underlying important traits like the infertility, the induction of flowering and bulbing, the organoleptic properties and resistance to various pathogens

    Global Oceanic Diazotroph Database Version 2 and Elevated Estimate of Global N\u3csub\u3e2\u3c/sub\u3e Fixation

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    Marine diazotrophs convert dinitrogen (N2) gas into bioavailable nitrogen (N), supporting life in the global ocean. In 2012, the first version of the global oceanic diazotroph database (version 1) was published. Here, we present an updated version of the database (version 2), significantly increasing the number of in situ diazotrophic measurements from 13 565 to 55 286. Data points for N2 fixation rates, diazotrophic cell abundance, and nifH gene copy abundance have increased by 184 %, 86 %, and 809 %, respectively. Version 2 includes two new data sheets for the nifH gene copy abundance of non-cyanobacterial diazotrophs and cell-specific N2 fixation rates. The measurements of N2 fixation rates approximately follow a log-normal distribution in both version 1 and version 2. However, version 2 considerably extends both the left and right tails of the distribution. Consequently, when estimating global oceanic N2 fixation rates using the geometric means of different ocean basins, version 1 and version 2 yield similar rates (43–57 versus 45–63 Tg N yr−1; ranges based on one geometric standard error). In contrast, when using arithmetic means, version 2 suggests a significantly higher rate of 223±30 Tg N yr−1 (mean ± standard error; same hereafter) compared to version 1 (74±7 Tg N yr−1). Specifically, substantial rate increases are estimated for the South Pacific Ocean (88±23 versus 20±2 Tg N yr−1), primarily driven by measurements in the southwestern subtropics, and for the North Atlantic Ocean (40±9 versus 10±2 Tg N yr−1). Moreover, version 2 estimates the N2 fixation rate in the Indian Ocean to be 35±14 Tg N yr−1, which could not be estimated using version 1 due to limited data availability. Furthermore, a comparison of N2 fixation rates obtained through different measurement methods at the same months, locations, and depths reveals that the conventional 15N2 bubble method yields lower rates in 69 % cases compared to the new 15N2 dissolution method. This updated version of the database can facilitate future studies in marine ecology and biogeochemistry. The database is stored at the Figshare repository (https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.21677687; Shao et al., 2022)

    Intragenomic rDNA variation - the product of concerted evolution, mutation, or something in between?

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    The classical model of concerted evolution states that hundreds to thousands of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) units undergo homogenization, making the multiple copies of the individual units more uniform across the genome than would be expected given mutation frequencies and gene redundancy. While the universality of this over 50-year-old model has been confirmed in a range of organisms, advanced high throughput sequencing techniques have also revealed that rDNA homogenization in many organisms is partial and, in rare cases, even apparently failing. The potential underpinning processes leading to unexpected intragenomic variation have been discussed in a number of studies, but a comprehensive understanding remains to be determined. In this work, we summarize information on variation or polymorphisms in rDNAs across a wide range of taxa amongst animals, fungi, plants, and protists. We discuss the definition and description of concerted evolution and describe whether incomplete concerted evolution of rDNAs predominantly affects coding or non-coding regions of rDNA units and if it leads to the formation of pseudogenes or not. We also discuss the factors contributing to rDNA variation, such as interspecific hybridization, meiotic cycles, rDNA expression status, genome size, and the activity of effector genes involved in genetic recombination, epigenetic modifications, and DNA editing. Finally, we argue that a combination of approaches is needed to target genetic and epigenetic phenomena influencing incomplete concerted evolution, to give a comprehensive understanding of the evolution and functional consequences of intragenomic variation in rDNA
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