131,070 research outputs found

    A mitochondrial-focused genetic interaction map reveals a scaffold-like complex required for inner membrane organization in mitochondria.

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    To broadly explore mitochondrial structure and function as well as the communication of mitochondria with other cellular pathways, we constructed a quantitative, high-density genetic interaction map (the MITO-MAP) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The MITO-MAP provides a comprehensive view of mitochondrial function including insights into the activity of uncharacterized mitochondrial proteins and the functional connection between mitochondria and the ER. The MITO-MAP also reveals a large inner membrane-associated complex, which we term MitOS for mitochondrial organizing structure, comprised of Fcj1/Mitofilin, a conserved inner membrane protein, and five additional components. MitOS physically and functionally interacts with both outer and inner membrane components and localizes to extended structures that wrap around the inner membrane. We show that MitOS acts in concert with ATP synthase dimers to organize the inner membrane and promote normal mitochondrial morphology. We propose that MitOS acts as a conserved mitochondrial skeletal structure that differentiates regions of the inner membrane to establish the normal internal architecture of mitochondria

    A prototypical small-molecule modulator uncouples mitochondria in response to endogenous hydrogen peroxide production

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    A high membrane potential across the mitochondrial inner membrane leads to the production of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) implicated in aging and age-related diseases. A prototypical drug for the correction of this type of mitochondrial dysfunction is presented. MitoDNP-SUM accumulates in mitochondria in response to the membrane potential due to its mitochondria-targeting alkyltriphenylphosphonium (TPP) cation and is uncaged by endogenous hydrogen peroxide to release the mitochondrial uncoupler, 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP). DNP is known to reduce the high membrane potential responsible for the production of ROS. The approach potentially represents a general method for the delivery of drugs to the mitochondrial matrix through mitochondria targeting and H2O2-induced uncaging

    Insertion of proteins into the inner membrane of mitochondria: the role of the Oxa1 complex

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    The inner mitochondrial membrane harbors a large number of proteins that display a wide range of topological arrangements. The majority of these proteins are encoded in the cell\u27s nucleus, but a few polytopic proteins, all subunits of respiratory chain complexes are encoded by the mitochondrial genome. A number of distinct sorting mechanisms exist to direct these proteins into the mitochondrial inner membrane. One of these pathways involves the export of proteins from the matrix into the inner membrane and is used by both proteins synthesized within the mitochondria, as well as by a subset of nuclear encoded proteins. Prior to embarking on the export pathway, nuclear encoded proteins using this sorting route are initially imported into the mitochondrial matrix from the cytosol, their site of synthesis. Protein export from the matrix into the inner membrane bears similarities to Sec-independent protein export in bacteria and requires the function of the Oxa1 protein. Oxa1 is a component of a general protein insertion site in yeast mitochondrial inner membrane used by both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA encoded proteins. Oxa1 is a member of the conserved Oxa1/YidC/Alb3 protein family found throughout prokaryotes throughout eukaryotes (where it is found in mitochondria and chloroplasts). The evidence to demonstrate that the Oxa1/YidC/Alb3 protein family represents a novel evolutionarily conserved membrane insertion machinery is reviewed here

    Transport of Cytoplasmically Synthesized Proteins into the Mitochondria in a Cell Free System from Neurospora crassa

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    Synthesis and transport of mitochondrial proteins were followed in a cell-free homogenate of Neurospora crassa in which mitochondrial translation was inhibited. Proteins synthesized on cytoplasmic ribosomes are transferred into the mitochondrial fraction. The relative amounts of proteins which are transferred in vitro are comparable to those transferred in whole cells. Cycloheximide and puromycin inhibit the synthesis of mitochondrial proteins but not their transfer into mitochondria. The transfer of immunoprecipitable mitochondrial proteins was demonstrated for matrix proteins, carboxyatractyloside-binding protein and cytochrome c. Import of proteins into mitochondria exhibits a degree of specificity. The transport mechanism differentiates between newly synthesized proteins and preexistent mitochondrial proteins, at least in the case of matrix proteins. In the cell-free homogenate membrane-bound ribosomes are more active in the synthesis of mitochondrial proteins than are free ribosomes. The finished translation products appear to be released from the membrane-bound ribosomes into the cytosol rather than into the membrane vesicles. The results suggest that the transport of cytoplasmically synthesized mitochondrial proteins is essentially independent of cytoplasmic translation; that cytoplasmically synthesized mitochondrial proteins exist in an extramitochondrial pool prior to import; that the site of this pool is the cytosol for at least some of the mitochondrial proteins; and that the precursors in the extramitochondrial pool differ in structure or conformation from the functional proteins in the mitochondria

    The carboxyl-terminal two-thirds of the ADP/ATP carrier polypeptide contains sufficient information to direct translocation into mitochondria

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    The precursor of the mitochondrial inner membrane protein ADP/ATP carrier is cytoplasmically synthesized without an amino-terminal peptide extension. We constructed a truncated precursor lacking the 103 amino acids from the amino terminus (about a third of the protein). Import of the truncated precursor into mitochondria showed the import characteristics of the authentic precursor, including nucleoside triphosphate dependence, requirement for a protease-sensitive component on the mitochondrial surface, two-step specific binding to the outer membrane, and membrane potential-dependent translocation into the inner membrane. We conclude that, in contrast to all other mitochondrial precursor proteins studied so far, domains of the ADP/ATP carrier distant from the amino terminus can carry specific targeting information for transport into mitochondria

    Purification and Characterisation of a Pore Protein of the Outer Mitochondrial Membrane from Neurospora crassa

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    The major protein of the outer mitochondrial membrane of Neurospora was purified. On dodecylsulfate-containing gels it displayed a single bend with an apparent molecular weight of 31000. reconstitution experiments with artifical lipid bilayers showed that this protein forms pores. Pore conductance was dependent on the voltage across the membrane. The protein inserted into the membrane in an oriented fashion, the membrane current being dependent on the sign of the voltage. Single pore conductance was 5nS, suggesting a diameter of 2nm of the open pore. This mitochondrial protein shows a number of similarities to the outer membrane porins of gram-negative bacteria

    Strategies for maximizing ATP supply in the microsporidian Encephalitozoon cuniculi: direct binding of mitochondria to the parasitophorous vacuole and clustering of the mitochondrial porin VDAC

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    Microsporidia are obligate intracellular parasites with extremely reduced genomes and a dependence on host-derived ATP. The microsporidium Encephalitozoon cuniculi proliferates within a membranous vacuole and we investigated how the ATP supply is optimized at the vacuole–host interface. Using spatial EM quantification (stereology), we found a single layer of mitochondria coating substantial proportions of the parasitophorous vacuole. Mitochondrial binding occurred preferentially over the vegetative ‘meront’ stages of the parasite, which bulged into the cytoplasm, thereby increasing the membrane surface available for mitochondrial interaction. In a broken cell system mitochondrial binding was maintained and was typified by electron dense structures (<10 nm long) bridging between outer mitochondrial and vacuole membranes. In broken cells mitochondrial binding was sensitive to a range of protease treatments. The function of directly bound mitochondria, as measured by the membrane potential sensitive dye JC-1, was indistinguishable from other mitochondria in the cell although there was a generalized depression of the membrane potential in infected cells. Finally, quantitative immuno-EM revealed that the ATP-delivering mitochondrial porin, VDAC, was concentrated atthe mitochondria-vacuole interaction site. Thus E. cuniculi appears to maximize ATP supply by direct binding of mitochondria to the parasitophorous vacuole bringing this organelle within 0.020 microns of the growing vegetative form of the parasite. ATP-delivery is further enhanced by clustering of ATP transporting porins in those regions of the outer mitochondrial membrane lying closest to the parasite

    Translocation and insertion of precursor proteins into isolated outer membranes of mitochondria

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    Nuclear-encoded proteins destined for mitochondria must cross the outer or both outer and inner membranes to reach their final sub- mitochondrial locations. While the inner membrane can translocate preproteins by itself, it is not known whether the outer membrane also contains an endogenous protein translocation activity which can function independently of the inner membrane. To selectively study the protein transport into and across the outer membrane of Neurospora crassa mitochondria, outer membrane vesicles were isolated which were sealed, in a right-side-out orientation, and virtually free of inner membranes. The vesicles were functional in the insertion and assembly of various outer membrane proteins such as porin, MOM19, and MOM22. Like with intact mitochondria, import into isolated outer membranes was dependent on protease-sensitive surface receptors and led to correct folding and membrane integration. The vesicles were also capable of importing a peripheral component of the inner membrane, cytochrome c heme lyase (CCHL), in a receptor-dependent fashion. Thus, the protein translocation machinery of the outer mitochondrial membrane can function as an independent entity which recognizes, inserts, and translocates mitochondrial preproteins of the outer membrane and the intermembrane space. In contrast, proteins which have to be translocated into or across the inner membrane were only specifically bound to the vesicles, but not imported. This suggests that transport of such proteins involves the participation of components of the intermembrane space and/or the inner membrane, and that in these cases the outer membrane translocation machinery has to act in concert with that of the inner membrane
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