76,781 research outputs found

    Victims' Access to Justice in Trinidad and Tobago: An exploratory study of experiences and challenges of accessing criminal justice in a post-colonial society

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    This thesis investigates victims' access to justice in Trinidad and Tobago, using their own narratives. It seeks to capture how their experiences affected their identities as victims and citizens, alongside their perceptions of legitimacy regarding the criminal justice system. While there have been some reforms in the administration of criminal justice in Trinidad and Tobago, such reforms have not focused on victims' accessibility to the justice system. Using grounded theory methodology, qualitative data was collected through 31 in-depth interviews with victims and victim advocates. The analysis found that victims experienced interpersonal, structural, and systemic barriers at varying levels throughout the criminal justice system, which manifested as institutionalized secondary victimization, silencing and inequality. This thesis argues that such experiences not only served to appropriate conflict but demonstrates that access is often given in a very narrow sense. Furthermore, it shows a failure to encompass access to justice as appropriated conflicts are left to stagnate in the system as there is often very little resolution. Adopting a postcolonial lens to analyse victims' experiences, the analysis identified othering practices that served to institutionalize the vulnerability and powerlessness associated with victim identities. Here, it is argued that these othering practices also affected the rights consciousness of victims, delegitimating their identities as citizens. Moreover, as a result of their experiences, victims had mixed perceptions of the justice system. It is argued that while the system is a legitimate authority victims' endorsement of the system is questionable, therefore victims' experiences suggest that there is a reinforcement of the system's legal hegemony. The findings suggest that within the legal system of Trinidad and Tobago, legacies of colonialism shape the postcolonial present as the psychology and inequalities of the past are present in the interactions and processes of justice. These findings are relevant for policymakers in Trinidad and Tobago and other regions. From this study it is recognized that, to improve access to justice for victims, there needs to be a move towards victim empowerment that promotes resilience and enhances social capital. Going forward it is noted that there is a need for further research

    Implementing Health Impact Assessment as a Required Component of Government Policymaking: A Multi-Level Exploration of the Determinants of Healthy Public Policy

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    It is widely understood that the public policies of ‘non-health’ government sectors have greater impacts on population health than those of the traditional healthcare realm. Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is a decision support tool that identifies and promotes the health benefits of policies while also mitigating their unintended negative consequences. Despite numerous calls to do so, the Ontario government has yet to implement HIA as a required component of policy development. This dissertation therefore sought to identify the contexts and factors that may both enable and impede HIA use at the sub-national (i.e., provincial, territorial, or state) government level. The three integrated articles of this dissertation provide insights into specific aspects of the policy process as they relate to HIA. Chapter one details a case study of purposive information-seeking among public servants within Ontario’s Ministry of Education (MOE). Situated within Ontario’s Ministry of Health (MOH), chapter two presents a case study of policy collaboration between health and ‘non-health’ ministries. Finally, chapter three details a framework analysis of the political factors supporting health impact tool use in two sub-national jurisdictions – namely, QuĂ©bec and South Australia. MOE respondents (N=9) identified four components of policymaking ‘due diligence’, including evidence retrieval, consultation and collaboration, referencing, and risk analysis. As prospective HIA users, they also confirmed that information is not routinely sought to mitigate the potential negative health impacts of education-based policies. MOH respondents (N=8) identified the bureaucratic hierarchy as the brokering mechanism for inter-ministerial policy development. As prospective HIA stewards, they also confirmed that the ministry does not proactively flag the potential negative health impacts of non-health sector policies. Finally, ‘lessons learned’ from case articles specific to QuĂ©bec (n=12) and South Australia (n=17) identified the political factors supporting tool use at different stages of the policy cycle, including agenda setting (‘policy elites’ and ‘political culture’), implementation (‘jurisdiction’), and sustained implementation (‘institutional power’). This work provides important insights into ‘real life’ policymaking. By highlighting existing facilitators of and barriers to HIA use, the findings offer a useful starting point from which proponents may tailor context-specific strategies to sustainably implement HIA at the sub-national government level

    Formation of ultrapotassic magma via crustal contamination and hybridization of mafic magma: an example from the Stomanovo monzonite, Central Rhodope Massif, Bulgaria

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    Generally all orogenic ultrapotassic rocks are formed after melting of metasomatized sub-continental lithospheric mantle via subducted crustal mica-bearing lithologies. Here we present another possible model, based on the study of the small Stomanovo ultrapotassic monzonite porphyry intrusion in the Central Rhodope Massif, Bulgaria. The monzonite dated at 30.50 ± 0.46 Ma is intruded into the voluminous Oligocene (31.63 ± 0.40 Ma) Bratsigovo–Dospat ignimbrite. The monzonite hosts both normally and reversely zoned clinopyroxene phenocrysts. The normally zoned clinopyroxene is characterized by gradually diminishing core-to-rim Mg no. (89–74), whereas the reversely zoned clinopyroxene has green Fe-rich cores (Mg no. 71–55) mantled by normally zoned clinopyroxene (Mg no. 87–74). Neither the core of the normally zoned clinopyroxene nor the Fe-rich green cores are in equilibrium with the host monzonite. This ultrapotassic monzonite shows more radiogenic Sr isotopes ((87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.71066) and Ï”Nd(t) = −7.8 to −8.0 that are distinct from the host ignimbrites with (87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.70917–0.70927 and Ï”Nd(t) = −4.6 to −6.5. The Sr–Nd isotopic data and the presence of copious zircon xenocrysts from the underlying metamorphic basement suggest extensive crustal assimilation. Our observations indicate that the Stomanovo ultrapotassic monzonite formed after extensive lower or middle crustal fractional crystallization from an evolved magma producing cumulates. The process was followed by hybridization with primitive mantle-derived magma and subsequent continuous crustal contamination. We suggest that instead of inheriting their high K2O and large-ion lithophile element enrichments from slab-derived/metasomatic fluids, the Stomanovo ultrapotassic monzonite may owe some of its unusually high alkalinity to the assimilation of potassium-rich phases from the Rhodope Massif basement rocks

    Molecular diagnosis of Mycoplasma bovis

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    Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina VeterinĂĄriaMycoplasma bovis is a bacteria responsible for different disease presentations in cattle, such as pneumonia, mastitis, otitis, genital disorders, keratoconjuntivitis and arthritis, presently considered as one of the major emerging pathogens affecting cattle. Until this day, it is responsible for losses in animal production of over 150 million euros across Europe. The pathogenesis of Mycoplasma-associated diseases is multifactorial and the highly variable surface lipoproteins allows a fast and efficient dissemination of M. bovis within the host and the herd. Due to its high antigenic plasticity, its ability to survive within multiple host cells and the capacity to establish multiple synergistic interactions with other pathogens, makes M. bovis and associated infections are a major challenge in Veterinary Medicine, since the vaccine is not efficient and antibiotics are almost inefficient. This study aims at developing and validating a quantitative PCR protocol for the diagnosis of M. bovis. 93 milk samples, from 5 different Portuguese farms, were collected, processed and each one’s DNA extracted to be analyzed through a qPCR method targeting the uvrC and uvrC2024 genes. Given the percentage of positivity, which was high, the conclusion we can take from the study is that there is still work to do, in terms of establishing a uniformed practice to tackle the wide presence of M. bovis in farms.RESUMO - DiagnĂłstico Molecular de M. bovis - Mycoplasma bovis Ă© uma bactĂ©ria cuja infecção pode ter diferentes apresentaçÔes tais como pneumonia, mastite, otite, afecçÔes genitais, queratoconjuntivite e artrites. É um dos agentes considerados emergentes e que afecta a produção agropecuĂĄria, sendo responsĂĄvel por perdas na ordem dos 150 milhĂ”es de euros na Europa. Tem uma patogĂ©nese multifactorial e as proteĂ­nas membranares Ă  sua superfĂ­cie conferem uma variabilidade que permite uma rĂĄpida e eficiente disseminação no hospedeiro, e no rebanho. Esta variabilidade e capacidade de resistir Ă  imunidade do hospedeiro, assim como as suas interacçÔes sinĂ©rgicas com outros agentes patogĂ©nicos, tornam as infecçÔes por M. bovis um obstĂĄculo difĂ­cil de conter e ultrapassar na Medicina VeterinĂĄria, isto porque quer a antibioterapia, quer a vacina, nĂŁo sĂŁo eficientes. Este estudo procura desenvolver e contribuir para o estabelecimento de um protocolo de diagnĂłstico para a detecção de M. bovis. Vindas de 5 produçÔes portuguesas diferentes, 93 amostras foram processadas e analisadas atravĂ©s de um qPCR, com os genes uvrC e uvrC2024 como genes alvo. Dados os resultados, com uma positividade significativa pode-se considerar que ainda hĂĄ trabalho pela frente em termos de estabelecer e uniformizar uma prĂĄtica para combater a larga presença de M. bovis nas exploraçÔes.N/

    Konvergenttisen evoluution mekanismit

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    TiivistelmÀ. Konvergenttisessa evoluutiossa on kyse siitÀ, ettÀ kaukaisille sukulaislajeille kehittyy samantapaisia piirteitÀ. TÀllainen piirre on esimerkiksi hÀmÀhÀkeille ja selkÀrankaisille kehittynyt tarkentava silmÀ. TÀmÀ voi johtua eliöiden tarve sopeutua samanlaisiin olosuhteisiin, mutta on löydetty myös ei-adaptiivisia syitÀ. Taustalla on yleensÀ samankaltaisia geneettisiÀ muutoksia, jotka saavat aikaan yhtenevÀt fenotyypit. Konvergenttisen evoluution geneettinen tausta voidaankin jakaa kahteen prosessiin: paralleeliseen ja kollateraaliseen geneettiseen evoluutioon, riippuen siitÀ kuinka nÀmÀ geneettiset muutokset ovat syntyneet. NÀitÀ muutoksia voidaan löytÀÀ genomia sekvensoimalla. TÀmÀn jÀlkeen voidaan muodostaa fylogeneettinen puu sukulaislajeista ja tutkimuksen kohteena olevasta geenistÀ ja katsoa viittaavatko tulokset paralleeliseen vai kollateraaliseen evoluutioon. Paralleelisen evoluution yhtenÀ esimerkkinÀ on Pseudomonas aeruginosa -bakteeri. SitÀ kasvatettiin kystisen fibroosin kaltaisissa olosuhteissa. Osa viljelmistÀ sisÀlsi antibioottia ja/tai musiinia. Bakteeri sopeutui nÀihin ympÀristöihin useiden geenien mutaatioiden avulla. Paralleelisia mutaatioita tapahtui antibioottiresistenssiin liittyvissÀ geeneissÀ sekÀ syklisen-di-GMP-signaloinnin geeneissÀ. NÀmÀ geneettiset muutokset olivat bakteerille hyödyllisiÀ ja paransivat sen sopeutumista uusiin ympÀristöihin. Kollateraalista evoluutiota voi tapahtua yhteisen esi-isÀn kautta. TÀtÀ on havaittu luolakaloilla. Niiden vÀhentynyt pigmentti oli perÀisin Mc1r-geenissÀ tapahtuneista muutoksista. Tunnistettiin kaksi alleelia, jotka tekivÀt geenistÀ toimimattoman. NÀistÀ toista havaittiin vain kahdessa tutkitussa luolassa, jotka sijaitsevat kaukana toisistaan. TÀmÀ alleeli voikin olla perÀisin varhaisesta pintakalapopulaatiosta, joka kolonisoi nÀmÀ luolat. Luolissa alleeli on ollut valinnan kohteena ja auttanut kaloja sopeutumaan luolaolosuhteisiin. NÀiden esimerkkien myötÀ voidaankin todeta, ettÀ konvergenttinen evoluutio on jossain mÀÀrin ennustettavaa. TÀtÀ tukee se, ettÀ geneettiset muutokset tapahtuvat yleensÀ tietyissÀ geeneissÀ, samaa reittiÀ pitkin ja luonnonvalinta vaikuttaa suosivan tiettyjÀ muutoksia. NÀmÀ geneettiset muutokset auttavat yksilöÀ sopeutumaan ympÀristöönsÀ ja samalla saavat aikaan samannÀköiset fenotyypit

    Antisense locked nucleic acid gapmers to control Candida albicans filamentation

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    Whereas locked nucleic acid (LNA) has been extensively used to control gene expression, it has never been exploited to control Candida virulence genes. Thus, the main goal of this work was to compare the efficacy of five different LNA-based antisense oligonucleotides (ASO) with respect to the ability to control EFG1 gene expression, to modulate filamentation and to reduce C. albicans virulence. In vitro, all LNA-ASOs were able to significantly reduce C. albicans filamentation and to control EFG1 gene expression. Using the in vivo Galleria mellonella model, important differences among the five LNA-ASOs were revealed in terms of C. albicans virulence reduction. The inclusion of PS-linkage and palmitoyl-2-amino-LNA chemical modification in these five LNA gapmers proved to be the most promising combination, increasing the survival of G. mellonella by 40%. Our work confirms that LNA-ASOs are useful tools for research and therapeutic development in the candidiasis field.This study was supported by the Portuguese Foundation forScience and Technology (FCT) under the strategic funding of UIDB/04469/2020 unit and BioTecNorte operation (NORTE-01-0145-FEDER-000004) funded by the European RegionalDevelopment Fund under the scope of Norte2020-ProgramaOperacional Regional do Norte and Daniela Eira AraĂșjo [SFRH/BD/121417/2016] PhD grant. The authors also acknowledge theproject funding by the“02/SAICT/2017–Projetos de Investiga-ção CientĂ­fica e Desenvolvimento TecnolĂłgico (IC&DT)–POCI-01-0145-FEDER-028893”. VILLUM Fonden is acknowledgedfor funding the Biomolecular Nano-scale Engineering Center(BioNEC), a Villum center of excellence, grant numberVKR18333. Funding received by iBB-Institute for Bioengineer-ing and Biosciences from FCT (UID/BIO/04565/2020) andPrograma Operacional Regional de Lisboa 2020 (Project No.007317) is also acknowledged. We acknowledge Dr. LucĂ­liaGoreti Pinto, Life and Health Sciences Research Institute(ICVS), School of Medicine, University of Minho, forprocessing and sectioningG. mellonellatissue samples.The authors declare no conflict of interest.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio


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    The aflatoxin producing fungi Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus, and A. nomius, although they are also produced by other species of Aspergillus as well as by Emericella spp.(Telemorph). There are many types of aflatoxins, but the four main ones are aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), aflatoxin B2 (AFB2), aflatoxin G1 (AFG1), and aflatoxin G2 (AFG2, while aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) and M2 (AFM2) are the hydroxylated metabolites of AFB1 and AFB2. Aflatoxin B1, which is a genotoxic hepatocarcinogen, which presumptively causes cancer by inducing DNA, adducts leading to genetic changes in target liver cells. Cytochrome-P450 enzymes to the reactive intermediate AFB1–8, 9 epoxide (AFBO) which binds to liver cell DNA, resulting in DNA adducts, metabolize AFB1 Ingestion of contaminated food is the main source of exposure to aflatoxins, which adversely affect the health of both humans and animals. The compounds can cause acute or chronic toxic effects of a teratogenic, mutagenic, carcinogenic, immunotoxic or hepatotoxic character. You can reduce your aflatoxin exposure by buying only major commercial brands of food and by discarding that look moldy, discolored, or shriveled

    Understanding the Responses, Mechanism and Development of Salinity Stress Tolerant Cultivars in Rice

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    Rice is the most important staple food crop of much of the world’s population. Production and consumption of rice is higher in Asia but adverse environmental conditions critically threaten the rice production. Soil salinity has been a key abiotic constraint affecting the crop production by reducing growth, development and yield of the plant. Rice is highly sensitive to salinity specifically at the early vegetative and late reproductive stages. Therefore, studying the responses of crop at the morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular level is an effective strategy. Understanding the mechanisms behind the salinity such as osmotic stress and osmolytes, ion exclusion, inclusion and compartmentation, antioxidant response and hormonal regulation. Different screening strategies such as phenotypic and genotypic screening for rice under salinity and select the salt tolerant lines. Using the conventional and molecular breeding approaches is a prerequisite for its effective management and to develop salt tolerant cultivars in rice