125 research outputs found

    Marginal leaf galls on Pliocene leaves from India indicate mutualistic behavior between Ipomoea plants and Eriophyidae mites

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    International audienceAbstract We report a new type of fossil margin galls arranged in a linear series on dicot leaf impressions from the latest Neogene (Pliocene) sediments of the Chotanagpur Plateau, Jharkhand, eastern India. We collected ca. 1500 impression and compression leaf fossils, of which 1080 samples bear arthropod damage referable to 37 different damage types (DT) in the ‘ Guide to Insect (and Other) Damage Types in Compressed Plant Fossils ’. A few leaf samples identified as Ipomoea L. (Convolvulaceae) have specific margin galls that do not match any galling DT previously described. This type of galling is characterized by small, linearly arranged, irregular, sessile, sub-globose, solitary, indehiscent, solid pouch-galls with irregular ostioles. The probable damage inducers of the present galling of the foliar margin might be members of Eriophyidae (Acari). The new type of gall suggests that marginal gall-inducing mites on leaves of Ipomoea did not change their host preference at the genus level since the Pliocene. The development of marginal leaf galling in Ipomoea is linked to extrafloral nectaries that do not offer protection against arthropod galling but indirectly protect the plant against herbivory from large mammals

    Author Correction: Exceptional preservation of internal organs in a new fossil species of freshwater shrimp (Caridea: Palaemonoidea) from the Eocene of Messel (Germany)

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    International audiencede Mazancourt et al. (2022) described a new species of fossil freshwater shrimp, Bechleja brevirostris from the Eocene of Messel (Germany). Although the species is fully characterized and figured in the original description, it was published in an online-only journal issue and the article does not include evidence of registration in ZooBank within the work itself, which is a requirement by Article 8.5.3 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature 1. Therefore, the newly proposed species-group name Bechleja brevirostris is not available

    An integrated leaf trait analysis of two Paleogene leaf floras

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    Objectives This study presents the Integrated Leaf Trait Analysis (ILTA), a workflow for the combined application of methodologies in leaf trait and insect herbivory analyses on fossil dicot leaf assemblages. The objectives were (1) to record the leaf morphological variability, (2) to describe the herbivory pattern on fossil leaves, (3) to explore relations between leaf morphological trait combination types (TCTs), quantitative leaf traits, and other plant characteristics (e.g., phenology), and (4) to explore relations of leaf traits and insect herbivory. Material and Methods The leaves of the early Oligocene floras Seifhennersdorf (Saxony, Germany) and Suletice-Berand (Ústí nad Labem Region, Czech Republic) were analyzed. The TCT approach was used to record the leaf morphological patterns. Metrics based on damage types on leaves were used to describe the kind and extent of insect herbivory. The leaf assemblages were characterized quantitatively (e.g., leaf area and leaf mass per area (LMA)) based on subsamples of 400 leaves per site. Multivariate analyses were performed to explore trait variations. Results In Seifhennersdorf, toothed leaves of TCT F from deciduous fossil-species are most frequent. The flora of Suletice-Berand is dominated by evergreen fossil-species, which is reflected by the occurrence of toothed and untoothed leaves with closed secondary venation types (TCTs A or E). Significant differences are observed for mean leaf area and LMA, with larger leaves tending to lower LMA in Seifhennersdorf and smaller leaves tending to higher LMA in Suletice-Berand. The frequency and richness of damage types are significantly higher in Suletice-Berand than in Seifhennersdorf. In Seifhennersdorf, the evidence of damage types is highest on deciduous fossil-species, whereas it is highest on evergreen fossil-species in Suletice-Berand. Overall, insect herbivory tends to be more frequently to occur on toothed leaves (TCTs E, F, and P) that are of low LMA. The frequency, richness, and occurrence of damage types vary among fossil-species with similar phenology and TCT. In general, they are highest on leaves of abundant fossil-species. Discussion TCTs reflect the diversity and abundance of leaf architectural types of fossil floras. Differences in TCT proportions and quantitative leaf traits may be consistent with local variations in the proportion of broad-leaved deciduous and evergreen elements in the ecotonal vegetation of the early Oligocene. A correlation between leaf size, LMA, and fossil-species indicates that trait variations are partly dependent on the taxonomic composition. Leaf morphology or TCTs itself cannot explain the difference in insect herbivory on leaves. It is a more complex relationship where leaf morphology, LMA, phenology, and taxonomic affiliation are crucial

    Exceptional preservation of internal organs in a new fossil species of freshwater shrimp (Caridea: Palaemonoidea) from the Eocene of Messel (Germany)

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    International audienceA new species of extinct freshwater shrimp was discovered in the Eocene deposit of the Messel Pit Konservat-Lagerstätte. This rare find is represented by only a few specimens, one of which showing exceptionally preserved soft tissues and other internal parts like the stomach with possibly gastric ossicles in place, branchiae, the ovary, and the left mandible, never described in a fossil shrimp. The new species Bechleja brevirostris n. sp. is characterized by a short rostrum bearing 6–8 dorsal spines and one ventral tooth, and long second pereiopods with strong chelae. One additional specimen shows a slightly different morphology and might belong to a different species. The systematic position of the species among the superfamily Palaemonoidea is discussed, as well as implications for the knowledge of the paleoenvironment of Lake Messel and the paleobiogeography of the Eocene

    Plant–insect interactions from the Late Pennsylvanian of the Iberian Peninsula (León, northern Spain)

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    We describe new evidences of plant-insect interactions from the Late Pennsylvanian of northern Iberian Peninsula (Leon, Spain). We document nine different Damage Types (DTs) among 216 fossil plant specimens. The interactions include four different Functional Feeding Groups (FFGs), including margin feeding (DT12 and DT13), hole feeding (DT09), galling (DT33, DT80, and DT116), and oviposition (DT67, DT100, and DT102) on Pteridophytes, Pteridospermatophytes, and Coniferophytes. Margin feeding and hole feeding were identified on different species of Polymorphopteris (P. polymorpha, P. cf. pseudobucklandii, and P. integra); galling on Mixoneura wagneri, Pecopteris apicalis, and Oligocarpia gutbieri; and oviposition on Polymorphopteris integra, Cordaites cf. angulostriatus and Polymorphopteris cf. integra. The oviposition scars represent the oldest record of oviposition from the Iberian Peninsula so far. In addition, it is the first evidence of plant-insect interactions on Oligocarpia and Polymorphopteris leaves in the area. These evidences reveal various ecological interactions between different groups of plants and insects in the Late Pennsylvanian forests of Spain, suggesting that these plants were a relevant source of food and lodge for a variety of arthropods (mainly insects). We also explore the possible culprits of these damages and the climatic implications.We appreciate the "Asociacion Paleontologica Alcarrena Nautilus" for the support received during the sampling works in open-cast mines in Leon. This work was supported by the project GRC2019/028 (ED431C-2019/28) of the Galician Government. Artai Santos is supported by a predoctoral fellowship from the Galician Government (Department of Culture, Education and University Planning) co-financed by the European Social Fund (Ref: ED481A-2019/243). Funding for open access charge: Universidade de Vigo/CISUG. We also thank the editors, Dr. Esther Pinheiro, and one anonymous reviewer for the constructive suggestions that have helped to improve the manuscript. All the samples are in the Museo de Ciencias Naturales de Alava (MCNA)

    The First Representative of the Roachoid Family Spiloblattinidae (Insecta, Dictyoptera) from the Late Pennsylvanian of the Iberian Peninsula

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    Sysciophlebia ‘sp. form Villablino’, the first Iberian representative of the Palaeozoic–Early Mesozoic family Spiloblattinidae, is described and illustrated. Its forewing colour pattern is strongly similar to those of the Gzhelian–early-middle Asselian species Sysciophlebia euglyptica, Sysciophlebia ilfeldensis, Sysciophlebia rubida, and ‘Sysciophlebia sp. form KBQ’, supporting the currently proposed Gzhelian age for its type locality. It supports the use of the representatives of the Spiloblattinidae for stratigraphic purposes. The diagnoses and limits of the families Subioblattidae, Phyloblattidae, Compsoblattidae, Spiloblattinidae, and of the spiloblattinid genera are discussed

    Exceptional preservation of internal organs in a new fossil species of freshwater shrimp (Caridea: Palaemonoidea) from the Eocene of Messel (Germany)

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    International audienceA new species of extinct freshwater shrimp was discovered in the Eocene deposit of the Messel Pit Konservat-Lagerstätte. This rare find is represented by only a few specimens, one of which showing exceptionally preserved soft tissues and other internal parts like the stomach with possibly gastric ossicles in place, branchiae, the ovary, and the left mandible, never described in a fossil shrimp. The new species Bechleja brevirostris n. sp. is characterized by a short rostrum bearing 6–8 dorsal spines and one ventral tooth, and long second pereiopods with strong chelae. One additional specimen shows a slightly different morphology and might belong to a different species. The systematic position of the species among the superfamily Palaemonoidea is discussed, as well as implications for the knowledge of the paleoenvironment of Lake Messel and the paleobiogeography of the Eocene

    Insect and plant diversity in hot-spring ecosystems during the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary from Spain (Aguilar Fm., Palencia)

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    Hydrothermal palaeoenvironments are very uncommon in Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous deposits worldwide. We present new plant and insect remains from travertines formed during the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary in northern Spain (Aguilar Fm., Palencia province). A total of 136 plant specimens and three insect wings were collected and studied. This entomofauna consists of dragonfly (Odonata) wings including Cymatophlebiidae and an undetermined new genus and species of Aktassiidae, representing the first report of these families for the Iberian Peninsula. The fossil flora shows different morphotypes of plants, which have been tentatively assigned to three different genera. The taphocoenosis of the flora was dominated by Bennettitales (98.5%) including cf. Pterophyllum sp., Ptilophyllum cf. acutifolium, Ptilophyllum cf. pecten, Ptilophyllum cf. pectiniformis and cf. Ptilophyllum sp., and the occasional presence of ferns (1.5%) represented by the taxon Cladophlebis cf. denticulata. The presence of the Anisoptera Cymatophlebia cf. longialata suggests a higher affinity for a Tithonian age of the studied site, and the anatomy and palaeogeographical distribution of this species suggest capacity to migrate for rather long distances. The floristic composition of the site differs remarkably from other Tithonian-Berriasian floras of the Iberian Peninsula. The presence of Odonata and the distinctive flora in (semi)arid conditions could be due to the hot-spring providing an environmental niche with constant conditions of warmth and humidity forming an ‘ecological oasis’.Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades de España | Ref. PGC2018-094034-B-C22Chinese Academy of Sciences | Ref. XDB26000000Xunta de Galicia | Ref. ED481A-2019/243Xunta de Galicia | Ref. ED481A-2020/17

    Plant–insect interactions from the mid-Cretaceous at Puy-Puy (Aquitaine Basin, western France) indicates preferential herbivory for angiosperms amid a forest of ferns, gymnosperms, and angiosperms

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    International audiencePlants and insects are the two dominant groups in terrestrial ecosystems, and insect damage on fossil plants is the only direct evidence documenting the past ecological history between these two, hyperdiverse groups. We describe, analyze, and interpret plant–insect interactions of a lower Cenomanian paleoforest from western France – the Puy-Puy Quarry of the Nouvelle-Aquitaine Region. We examined 1605 fossil leaves, axes, and reproductive material of bennettitalean, pinalean, and ginkgoalean gymnosperms; lauralean and magnolialean angiosperms; and pteridophyte fronds. We identified functional feeding groups (FFGs) and insect damage types (DTs) preserved on this foliage and data were rarified to indicate sample completeness. By employing R, various statistical parameters were calculated. We established 71 DTs for the nine FFGs of hole feeding, margin feeding, skeletonization, surface feeding, oviposition, piercing and sucking, galling, mining, and pathogens, and 1292 feeding event occurrences. Of the specimens examined 22.2% exhibited one or more DT, with angiosperms the most affected plant group. The most diverse interactions were mining and galling, indicating a mosaic of humid and xeric habitats, respectively, for the Puy-Puy paleoforest, a conclusion consistent with previous paleontological and sedimentological interpretations. Elevated DT richness suggests long-standing ecological relationships between the plants and insects, representative of a mature forest
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