1,041 research outputs found

    The role of anger rumination and autism spectrum disorder– Linked perseveration in the experience of aggression in the general population

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    This study (a) examined the role of anger rumination as a mediator of the relation between social anxiety and the experience of anger, hostility, and aggression, in the general population, and (b) evaluated the degree to which the presence of autism spectrum disorder characteristics moderates the indirect influence of anger rumination. We then explored whether social cognition and perseveration characteristic of autism spectrum disorder uniquely accounted for the predicted moderation. In this survey study of young adults (n = 948), anger rumination mediated the relation between social anxiety and hostility, as well as verbal and physical aggression, as predicted. Greater autism spectrum disorder characteristics augmented the effect of social anxiety on hostility and physical aggression by increasing the effect of anger rumination, but not by increasing the effect of social anxiety on anger rumination. Implications for developing treatment approaches that target hostility and aggression among young adults who may not be formally diagnosed but have characteristics of autism spectrum disorder are discussed

    Incidental Findings on Brain MRI in People with HIV Infection

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    BACKGROUND: Incidental findings are a well-known complication of imaging studies done for both diagnostic and research purposes. Little is known about the rates and types of incidental findings found on brain MRI in patients with HIV infection, who may be at risk for HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND). METHODS: The parent study included 108 adults with HIV infection and 125 demographically-matched uninfected controls who completed MRI and neuropsychological testing. Incidental findings were classified by the study team as vascular, neoplastic, congenital, other neurologic, or non-neurologic. Categorical measures were compared using Pearson chi-square tests; continuous measures were compared using t-tests. RESULTS: Among participants with HIV infection, 36/108 (33%) had incidental findings compared to 33/125 (26%) controls (p = 0.248). Rates of incidental findings were significantly correlated with increasing age in both participants with HIV infection (p = 0.013) and controls (p = 0.022). We found no correlation between presence of incidental findings and sex or race/ethnicity among either cohort, and no correlation with CD4 count or HAND status for the HIV-infected cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Incidental findings were common in both participants with HIV infection and controls, at higher rates than previously reported in healthy populations. There was no significant difference in prevalence between the groups

    Psychometric Properties of the Dutch Contextual Assessment of Social Skills (CASS):An Independent Observational Outcome Measure of Social Skills in Autistic Adolescents

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    The goal of this study was to translate and adapt the original 9-item of the Contextual Assessment of Social Skills (CASS) to a Dutch version and assess its psychometric qualities. Autistic adolescents aged 12 to 18 years (n = 99) took part in a randomized controlled trial. In this study, pre-intervention data were utilized. The original CASS was adapted to ensure cultural relevance and the content validity was assessed. Data was used to assess reliability and structural validity, using confirmatory factor analysis. 4-item were added to the CASS during the adaptation to better align with the objectives of the experimental intervention. The original 9-item had inter-item correlations between.01 and.70. The Cronbach’s alpha for the original 4-item total score was moderate (α =.69), while for a 7-item total score, it was high (α =.86). This 7-item total score had a sufficient model fit (Comparative Fit Index =.90). This total score had a significant correlation with the Assertion subscale of the Social Skills Improvement System-Adolescent (SSIS-A) (r = 0.26, p &lt;.01), and the Social Responsiveness Scale-2 (SRS-2) total score (r = − .21, p =.04) indicating sufficient convergent validity. The CASS total score was not correlated with the Repetitive and Restricted Behavior scale of the SRS-2 (r = − .08, p =.43), indicating sufficient divergent validity. The Dutch CASS can be considered a conceptually sound and reliable observational instrument for assessing social conversational skills in Dutch autistic youth. Further evaluation of its feasibility when implemented in practice, outside of clinical research, is needed. Trial registration: Dutch trail register NTR6255 (NL6117) 08/02/2017 https://www.trialregister.nl/trial/6117.</p

    Emerging Areas of Nursing Science and PhD Education for The 21\u3csup\u3est\u3c/sup\u3e Century: Response to Commentaries

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    We respond to commentaries from the American Academy of Nursing, the American Association of Colleges of Nursing, and the National Institute of Nursing Research on our thoughts about integrating emerging areas of science into nursing PhD programs. We identify areas of agreement and focus our response on cross-cutting issues arising from cautions about the unique focus of nursing science and how best to proceed with incorporation of emerging areas of science into nursing PhD programs

    MP745: A Long-Term Study of an Oak Pine Forest Ecosystem: A Brief Overview of the Holt Research Forest

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    This publication provides an overview of the long-term forest ecosystem project at the Holt Research Forest in Arrowsic, Maine. It is based on nearly 16 years of work by an interdisciplinary team from the College of Natural Sciences, Forestry, and Agriculture, including faculty, professional staff, visiting scientists, University of Maine graduate students, and undergraduate field assistants. We hope this publication will be useful to other researchers, to our workshop participants, and to others interested in forest ecosystem science.https://digitalcommons.library.umaine.edu/aes_miscpubs/1029/thumbnail.jp