203 research outputs found

    Collaboration of health and education sectors drives equity for children with complex disabilities in China

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    Medical professionals often find it challenging to assess children having both complex disabilities and visual impairment, which may lead to excluding such children from educational programs and limiting their full participation in family and community activities. Identification and assessment of these children are essential to close this exclusion gap. A five-year project in Shanxi province, China, provided comprehensive training to eye health providers and educators as they learned to assess, identify, refer and serve children with visual impairments, both with and without complex disabilities. A team of teachers, vision and general healthcare providers worked to assess the vision of these children at schools, residential settings, and in homes throughout Shanxi. The project led to deep collaboration between Shanxi's health and education sectors, and established replicable precedents for policy and system changes toward the inclusion of children with complex disabilities and visual impairment. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2023 Jacobs, Gleason, Gissara, Congdon, Smith and Xu.

    Global assessment of marine plastic exposure risk for oceanic birds

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    Plastic pollution is distributed patchily around the world’s oceans. Likewise, marine organisms that are vulnerable to plastic ingestion or entanglement have uneven distributions. Understanding where wildlife encounters plastic is crucial for targeting research and mitigation. Oceanic seabirds, particularly petrels, frequently ingest plastic, are highly threatened, and cover vast distances during foraging and migration. However, the spatial overlap between petrels and plastics is poorly understood. Here we combine marine plastic density estimates with individual movement data for 7137 birds of 77 petrel species to estimate relative exposure risk. We identify high exposure risk areas in the Mediterranean and Black seas, and the northeast Pacific, northwest Pacific, South Atlantic and southwest Indian oceans. Plastic exposure risk varies greatly among species and populations, and between breeding and non-breeding seasons. Exposure risk is disproportionately high for Threatened species. Outside the Mediterranean and Black seas, exposure risk is highest in the high seas and Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) of the USA, Japan, and the UK. Birds generally had higher plastic exposure risk outside the EEZ of the country where they breed. We identify conservation and research priorities, and highlight that international collaboration is key to addressing the impacts of marine plastic on wide-ranging species

    CANNABIS CRIME: UNDERGRADUATE INVESTIGATION

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    Applicable chemical forensic experimentation is important in undergraduate classrooms in order to establish real-world techniques and appropriate knowledge of procedure in order to translate into careers involving forensics. For the production of a forensic chemistry laboratory manual, a real-world scenario was created by capstone forensic chemistry students. The scenario involved several products from a producer of cannabinoids that was found to be the cause of illness and hospitalization in several customers of the company. The objective of the experimentation was to (1) determine the possibility of counterfeit products through label analysis, (2) determine any possible contaminants in the product, and (3) establish possible suspects and motives through relevant forensic techniques. Possible methodology and instrumentation to be used to accomplish the objective was left to the student and included fingerprint analysis, microscope analysis, types of spectroscopy (Raman, UV/Vis), GC/MS, and any other technique the student wanted to use in the department. This presentation will highlight the experimental design, implementation, and preliminary results of experimentation from undergraduate students

    Global assessment of marine plastic exposure risk for oceanic birds

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    Plastic pollution is distributed patchily around the world’s oceans. Likewise, marine organisms that are vulnerable to plastic ingestion or entanglement have uneven distributions. Understanding where wildlife encounters plastic is crucial for targeting research and mitigation. Oceanic seabirds, particularly petrels, frequently ingest plastic, are highly threatened, and cover vast distances during foraging and migration. However, the spatial overlap between petrels and plastics is poorly understood. Here we combine marine plastic density estimates with individual movement data for 7137 birds of 77 petrel species to estimate relative exposure risk. We identify high exposure risk areas in the Mediterranean and Black seas, and the northeast Pacific, northwest Pacific, South Atlantic and southwest Indian oceans. Plastic exposure risk varies greatly among species and populations, and between breeding and non-breeding seasons. Exposure risk is disproportionately high for Threatened species. Outside the Mediterranean and Black seas, exposure risk is highest in the high seas and Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) of the USA, Japan, and the UK. Birds generally had higher plastic exposure risk outside the EEZ of the country where they breed. We identify conservation and research priorities, and highlight that international collaboration is key to addressing the impacts of marine plastic on wide-ranging species

    Refining seabird marine protected areas by predicting habitat inside foraging range - a case study from the global tropics

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    Conservation of breeding seabirds typically requires detailed data on where they feed at sea. Ecological niche models (ENMs) can fill data gaps, but rarely perform well when transferred to new regions. Alternatively, the foraging radius approach simply encircles the sea surrounding a breeding seabird colony (a foraging circle), but overestimates foraging habitat. Here, we investigate whether ENMs can transfer (predict) foraging niches of breeding tropical seabirds between global colonies, and whether ENMs can refine foraging circles. We collate a large global dataset of tropical seabird tracks (12000 trips, 16 species, 60 colonies) to build a comprehensive summary of tropical seabird foraging ranges and to train ENMs. We interrogate ENM transferability and assess the confidence with which unsuitable habitat predicted by ENMs can be excluded from within foraging circles. We apply this refinement framework to the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia to identify a network of candidate marine protected areas (MPAs) for seabirds. We found little ability to generalise and transfer breeding tropical seabird foraging niches across all colonies for any species (mean AUC: 0.56, range 0.4-0.82). Low global transferability was partially explained by colony clusters that predicted well internally but other colony clusters poorly. After refinement with ENMs, foraging circles still contained 89% of known foraging areas from tracking data, providing confidence that important foraging habitat was not erroneously excluded by greater refinement from high transferability ENMs nor minor refinement from low transferability ENMs. Foraging radii estimated the total foraging area of the GBR breeding seabird community as 2,941,000 km2, which was refined by excluding between 197,000 km2 and 1,826,000 km2 of unsuitable foraging habitat. ENMs trained on local GBR tracking achieved superior refinement over globally trained models, demonstrating the value of local tracking. Our framework demonstrates an effective method to delineate candidate MPAs for breeding seabirds in data-poor regions

    Global assessment of marine plastic exposure risk for oceanic birds

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