52 research outputs found

    Bad channel detection in EEG recordings

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    Electroencephalography (EEG) is widely used in clinical applications and basic research. Dry EEG opened the application area to new fields like self-application during gaming and neurofeedback. While recording, the signals are always affected by artefacts. Manual detection of bad channels is the gold standard in both gel-based and dry EEG but is timeconsuming. We propose a simple and robust method for automatic bad channel detection in EEG. Our method is based on the iterative calculation of standard deviations for each channel. Statistical measures of these standard deviations serve as indications for bad channel detection. We compare the new method to the results obtained from the manually identified bad channels for EEG recordings. We analysed EEG signals during resting state with eyes closed and datasets with head movement. The results showed an accuracy of 99.69 % for both gel-based and dry EEG for resting state EEG. The accuracy of our new method is 99.38 % for datasets with the head movement for both setups. There was no significant difference between the manual gold standard of bad channel identification and our iterative standard deviation method. Therefore, the proposed iterative standard deviation method can be used for bad channel detection in resting state and movement EEG recordings

    Novel replaceable EEG electrode system

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    oai:www.db-thueringen.de:dbt_mods_00055040Due to the direct contact between electrode and scalp, dry EEG electrodes are exposed to increased mechanical wear compared to conventional gel-based electrodes. However, state-of-the-art commercial cap systems commonly use permanently fixated electrodes which can lead to downtime of the EEG cap during professional repair and replacement as well as reduced overall lifetime. An easily replaceable EEG electrode would furthermore improve hygiene, especially for newborn and infant applications. We propose a novel replaceable electrode system, consisting of an electrode holder, a snap top, a contact ring fixated inside the electrode holder, and a replaceable electrode. The production process consists of 3D printing, silicone molding, resin casting, and electroless plating. The replaceable electrode system is integrated into a multichannel EEG cap system. A verification study is conducted with 30 volunteers. The operators experienced that the new electrode holder eases adjustment of the electrode to have proper contact with the scalp. During the study, defective electrodes can be replaced without a soldering process. Furthermore, all electrodes stayed in the holder and did not fall off the cap for the whole session. In conclusion, the novel replaceable electrode system is suitable for EEG measurements

    Novel dry electrode EEG headbands for home use: comparing performance and comfort

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    Monitoring brain activity at home using electroencephalography (EEG) is an increasing trend for both medical and non-medical applications. Gel-based electrodes are not suitable due to the gel application requiring extensive preparation and cleaning support for the patient or user. Dry electrodes can be applied without prior preparation by the patient or user. We investigate and compare two dry electrode headbands for EEG acquisition: a novel hybrid dual-textile headband comprising multipin and multiwave electrodes and a neoprene-based headband comprising hydrogel and spidershaped electrodes. We compare the headbands and electrodes in terms of electrode-skin impedance, comfort, electrode offset potential and EEG signal quality. We did not observe considerable differences in the power spectral density of EEG recordings. However, the hydrogel electrodes showed considerably increased impedances and offset potentials, limiting their compatibility with many EEG amplifiers. The hydrogel and spider-shaped electrodes required increased adduction, resulting in a lower wearing comfort throughout the application time compared to the novel headband comprising multipin and multiwave electrodes

    Simultaneous measurement of DC-EEG and transcutaneous pCO2

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    DC potential shifts are the shifts observed in the EEG baseline which can last from seconds to minutes. The significance of these low-frequency components in healthy as well as pathological states of human physiology is getting more and more attention not only in scientific research but also in clinical applications. In this paper, we present our novel multimodal measurement setup for simultaneously investigating DC potential shifts in EEG (DC-EEG) and the changes in noninvasive transcutaneous pCO2 measurements. We present preliminary results of our measurements during hyperventilation and apnea, which are two commonly used activation methods for changes in pCO2

    Artifact reduction in multichannel ECG recordings acquired with textile electrodes

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    Textile electrodes integrated into clothes are an innovative approach for mobile ECG monitoring. However, the lack of electrode fixation on the skin causes high susceptibility to artifacts due to movements and changing electrochemical characteristics of the textile electrodes. In this paper we compare different artifact removal approaches concerning their efficiency in realistic multichannel ECG recordings acquired with textile electrodes. We employed Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Independent Component Analysis (ICA) in time and frequency domain using FastICA and Temporal Decorrelation Source Separation (TDSEP), respectively. Using textile electrodes comprising silver-coated fibers, five Einthoven-I-leads were acquired during walking, running and extensive breathing. Horizontally aligned electrodes each located on the left and right side of the shoulders, the chest and the back obtain the ECG signals. A reference signal was recorded using self-adhesive Ag/AgCl electrodes placed at the inner forearms enabling calculation of the correlation coefficient and the R-peak detection error. The methods using ICA enhance ECG recordings acquired with textile electrodes for all test conditions. TDSEP in the time domain obtains the best results and successfully removes artifacts in recordings of extensive breathing and walking. The results during running show considerable improvements but no complete artifact separation. In conclusion, ICA represents a promising approach for artifact reduction in multichannel ECG recordings acquired with textile electrodes

    The Arch electrode: a novel dry electrode concept for improved wearing comfort

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    Electroencephalography (EEG) is increasingly used for repetitive and prolonged applications like neurofeedback, brain computer interfacing, and long-term intermittent monitoring. Dry-contact electrodes enable rapid self-application. A common drawback of existing dry electrodes is the limited wearing comfort during prolonged application. We propose a novel dry Arch electrode. Five semi-circular arches are arranged parallelly on a common baseplate. The electrode substrate material is a flexible thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) produced by additive manufacturing. A chemical coating of Silver/Silver-Chloride (Ag/AgCl) is applied by electroless plating using a novel surface functionalization method. Arch electrodes were manufactured and validated in terms of mechanical durability, electrochemical stability, in vivo applicability, and signal characteristics. We compare the results of the dry arch electrodes with dry pin-shaped and conventional gel-based electrodes. 21-channel EEG recordings were acquired on 10 male and 5 female volunteers. The tests included resting state EEG, alpha activity, and a visual evoked potential. Wearing comfort was rated by the subjects directly after application, as well as at 30 min and 60 min of wearing. Our results show that the novel plating technique provides a well-adhering electrically conductive and electrochemically stable coating, withstanding repetitive strain and bending tests. The signal quality of the Arch electrodes is comparable to pin-shaped dry electrodes. The average channel reliability of the Arch electrode setup was 91.9 ± 9.5%. No considerable differences in signal characteristics have been observed for the gel-based, dry pin-shaped, and arch-shaped electrodes after the identification and exclusion of bad channels. The comfort was improved in comparison to pin-shaped electrodes and enabled applications of over 60 min duration. Arch electrodes required individual adaptation of the electrodes to the orientation and hairstyle of the volunteers. This initial preparation time of the 21-channel cap increased from an average of 5 min for pin-like electrodes to 15 min for Arch electrodes and 22 min for gel-based electrodes. However, when re-applying the arch electrode cap on the same volunteer, preparation times of pin-shaped and arch-shaped electrodes were comparable. In summary, our results indicate the applicability of the novel Arch electrode and coating for EEG acquisition. The novel electrode enables increased comfort for prolonged dry-contact measurement

    A high-density 256-channel cap for dry electroencephalography

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    High-density electroencephalography (HD-EEG) is currently limited to laboratory environments since state-of-the-art electrode caps require skilled staff and extensive preparation. We propose and evaluate a 256-channel cap with dry multipin electrodes for HD-EEG. We describe the designs of the dry electrodes made from polyurethane and coated with Ag/AgCl. We compare in a study with 30 volunteers the novel dry HD-EEG cap to a conventional gel-based cap for electrode-skin impedances, resting state EEG, and visual evoked potentials (VEP). We perform wearing tests with eight electrodes mimicking cap applications on real human and artificial skin. Average impedances below 900 k[Ohm] for 252 out of 256 dry electrodes enables recording with state-of-the-art EEG amplifiers. For the dry EEG cap, we obtained a channel reliability of 84% and a reduction of the preparation time of 69%. After exclusion of an average of 16% (dry) and 3% (gel-based) bad channels, resting state EEG, alpha activity, and pattern reversal VEP can be recorded with less than 5% significant differences in all compared signal characteristics metrics. Volunteers reported wearing comfort of 3.6 ± 1.5 and 4.0 ± 1.8 for the dry and 2.5 ± 1.0 and 3.0 ± 1.1 for the gel-based cap prior and after the EEG recordings, respectively (scale 1-10). Wearing tests indicated that up to 3,200 applications are possible for the dry electrodes. The 256-channel HD-EEG dry electrode cap overcomes the principal limitations of HD-EEG regarding preparation complexity and allows rapid application by not medically trained persons, enabling new use cases for HD-EEG

    Influence of silver/silver chloride electroless plating on the Shore hardness of polyurethane substrates for dry EEG electrodes

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    Dry electrodes enable a shorter preparation time for infant EEG. Since infant skin is more sensitive than adult skin, soft electrodes are required to reduce the mechanical stress for this sensitive skin. Thus, soft electrodes are crucial for eventual repetitive and long-term use like in neonatal intensive care units. A biocompatible polyurethane (PU) can be produced in low hardness resulting in a soft and flexible electrode substrate. Silver/silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) electroless plating provides a conductive, electrochemically stable coating but the process may alter the mechanical properties of the electrode substrate. In this study, we assess the hardness of PU material before and after Ag/AgCl plating. The test sample design for Shore hardness measurement is based on ISO 7619-1:2010. Sample production consists of a 3D print master model, silicone molding, PU casting, and finally electroless plating. UPX 8400-1 (Sika AG, Switzerland) is used for the sample substrates. Test samples are produced with 7 different Shore hardness (range A40-A95) and 14 samples (each hardness: 1 uncoated and 1 coated). The hardness measurements are carried out with a lever-operated test stand Shore hardness tester model with a digital hardness tester (TI-AC with HDA 100-1, KERN & SOHN GmbH, Germany). It is shown that there is a hardness increase (Shore A) due to Ag/AgCl coating with a grand average of 1.1±0.7 (p<0.05). The largest increase of 2.1±0.2 is seen on the initial lowest Shore hardness sample (Shore hardness: 43.4±0.1). The absolute increase of hardness due to the Ag/AgCl coating decreases with increasing substrate hardness. It is concluded that there is no strong hardness increase of PU substrates due to Ag/AgCl plating. Therefore, the material is suitable as a soft electrode for repetitive and long-term use in infant applications
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