227 research outputs found

    Cell-Based Therapies for Diabetic Complications

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    In recent years, accumulating experimental evidence supports the notion that diabetic patients may greatly benefit from cell-based therapies, which include the use of adult stem and/or progenitor cells. In particular, mesenchymal stem cells and the circulating pool of endothelial progenitor cells have so far been the most studied populations of cells proposed for the treatment of vascular complications affecting diabetic patients. We review the evidence supporting their use in this setting, the therapeutic benefits that these cells have shown so far as well as the challenges that cell-based therapies in diabetic complications put out

    Upregulation of SOCS-1 by Nutlin-3 in acute myeloid leukemia cells but not in primary normal cells

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    OBJECTIVE: It has been shown that SOCS-1 plays an important role in the proper control of cytokine/growth factor responses and acts as a tumor suppressor in acute myeloid leukemias. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro effect of treatment with Nutlin-3, a small molecule inhibitor of the MDM2/p53 interaction, on the expression of the suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 in primary acute myeloid leukemia cells and in myeloid cell lines with differential p53 status. METHOD: The expression of the suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 was quantitatively analyzed by real-time PCR in myeloid p53wild-type (OCI and MOLM) and p53null HL-60, leukemic cell lines, in patient-derived acute myeloid leukemia blasts, and in primary normal cell types, such as macrophages, endothelial cells, and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The p53-dependence of the suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 upregulation that is induced by Nutlin-3 was analyzed in experiments performed using siRNA for p53, while the functional upregulation of the suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 was analyzed by assessing the levels of phosphorylated STAT-3. RESULTS: Nutlin-3 significantly upregulated the transcription of the suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 in p53wild-type OCI and MOLM but not in p53deleted p53null HL60, myeloid leukemic cell lines, as well as in primary acute myeloid leukemia blasts. Conversely, and somewhat unexpectedly, Nutlin-3 did not modulate the suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 expression in primary normal macrophages, endothelial cells, and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The p53-dependent upregulation of the suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 by Nutlin-3 was associated with the downregulation of phosphorylated STAT-3, a major molecular target of the suppressor of cytokine signaling 1. CONCLUSION: Overall, our data suggest a potential role for the suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 as a therapeutic target of Nutlin-3 in p53 wild-type acute myeloid leukemias

    CCR4+ skin-tropic phenotype as a feature of central memory CD8+ T cells in healthy subjects and psoriasis patients

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    The chemokine receptor CCR4 has emerged as a skin-homing molecule important for the migration of T cells from the blood to the dermis. From our previous data on psoriasis patients, CCR4+ memory T cells emerged as a putative recirculating population between skin and blood. Here we focused our attention on the expression of CCR4 and skin-tropic molecules in the different stages of memory T cell differentiation. We analyzed the chemokine receptor profile in CD8+ and CD4+ CD45RA−CCR7+ (TCM) and CD45RA−CCR7− (TEM) cells. Subpopulations were further divided on the basis of CD62L expression, and the distribution among the subsets of the skin-homing molecule CLA (Cutaneous Lymphocyte Antigen) was evaluated. The characterization was performed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from 21 healthy subjects and 24 psoriasis patients. The results indicate that (i) the skin-homing CCR4 marker is mainly expressed in TCM cells, (ii) CCR4+ TCM cells also express high level of CLA and that (iii) the more differentiated phenotype TEM expresses CXCR3 and CCR5 but lower level of CCR4 and CLA. This indicates that progressive stages of memory T cell differentiation have profoundly different chemokine receptor patterns, with CD8+ TCM displaying a marked skin-tropic phenotype CLA+CCR4+. Differential skin-tropic phenotype between TCM and TEM cells was observed in both healthy subjects and psoriasis patients. However, patients showed an expanded circulating population of CD8+ TCM cells with phenotype CCR4+CXCR3+ that could play a role in the pathophysiology of psoriasis and possibly in disease recurrence

    Circulating levels of TNF-related apoptosis inducing-ligand are decreased in patients with large adult-type granulosa cell tumors-implications for therapeutic potential

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    Targeted treatments are needed for advanced adult-type granulosa cell tumors (AGCTs). We set out to assess tumor tissue and circulating levels of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), a promising anti-cancer cytokine, in patients affected by AGCT. We analyzed tissue expression of TRAIL in 127 AGCTs using immunohistochemistry or RT-PCR. Soluble TRAIL was measured by means of ELISA from 141 AGCT patient serum samples, as well as the conditioned media of 15 AGCT patient-derived primary cell cultures, and the KGN cell line. Tissue and serum TRAIL levels were analyzed in relationship with clinical parameters, and serum estradiol, FSH, and LH levels. We found that AGCT samples expressed TRAIL mRNA and protein at levels comparable to normal granulosa cells. AGCT cells did not release soluble TRAIL. TRAIL protein levels were decreased in tumors over 10 cm in diameter (p = 0.04). Consistently, circulating TRAIL levels correlated negatively to tumor dimension (p = 0.01). Circulating TRAIL levels negatively associated with serum estradiol levels. In multiple regression analysis, tumor size was an independent factor contributing to the decreased levels of soluble TRAIL in AGCT patients. AGCTs associate with significantly decreased tumor tissue and serum TRAIL levels in patients with a large tumor mass. These findings encourage further study of agonistic TRAIL treatments in patients with advanced or recurrent AGCT.Peer reviewe

    Sex/Gender-Specific Imbalance in CVD: Could Physical Activity Help to Improve Clinical Outcome Targeting CVD Molecular Mechanisms in Women?

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    In the last two decades, new insights have been gained regarding sex/gender-related differences in cardiovascular disease (CVD). CVD represents the leading cause of death worldwide in both men and women, accounting for at least one-third of all deaths in women and half of deaths in women over 50 years in developing countries. Important sex-related differences in prevalence, presentation, management, and outcomes of different CVDs have been recently discovered, demonstrating sex/gender-specific pathophysiologic features in the presentation and prognosis of CVD in men and women. A large amount of evidence has highlighted the role of sex hormones in protecting women from CVDs, providing an advantage over men that is lost when women reach the menopause stage. This hormonal-dependent shift of sex-related CVD risk consequently affects the overall CVD epidemiology, particularly in light of the increasing trend of population aging. The benefits of physical activity have been recognized for a long time as a powerful preventive approach for both CVD prevention and aging-related morbidity control. Exercise training is indeed a potent physiological stimulus, which reduces primary and secondary cardiovascular events. However, the underlying mechanisms of these positive effects, including from a sex/gender perspective, still need to be fully elucidated. The aim of this work is to provide a review of the evidence linking sex/gender-related differences in CVD, including sex/gender-specific molecular mediators, to explore whether sex- and gender-tailored physical activity may be used as an effective tool to prevent CVD and improve clinical outcomes in women

    serum soluble tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis inducing ligand levels in older subjects with dementia and mild cognitive impairment

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    Background: The tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has been involved in both physiological and pathological conditions, including va

    p53/NF-kB Balance in SARS-CoV-2 Infection: From OMICs, Genomics and Pharmacogenomics Insights to Tailored Therapeutic Perspectives (COVIDomics)

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    SARS-CoV-2 infection affects different organs and tissues, including the upper and lower airways, the lung, the gut, the olfactory system and the eye, which may represent one of the gates to the central nervous system. Key transcriptional factors, such as p53 and NF-kB and their reciprocal balance, are altered upon SARS-CoV-2 infection, as well as other key molecules such as the virus host cell entry mediator ACE2, member of the RAS-pathway. These changes are thought to play a central role in the impaired immune response, as well as in the massive cytokine release, the so-called cytokine storm that represents a hallmark of the most severe form of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Host genetics susceptibility is an additional key side to consider in a complex disease as COVID-19 characterized by such a wide range of clinical phenotypes. In this review, we underline some molecular mechanisms by which SARS-CoV-2 modulates p53 and NF-kB expression and activity in order to maximize viral replication into the host cells. We also face the RAS-pathway unbalance triggered by virus-ACE2 interaction to discuss potential pharmacological and pharmacogenomics approaches aimed at restoring p53/NF-kB and ACE1/ACE2 balance to counteract the most severe forms of SARS-CoV-2 infection

    Potential Prognostic Significance of Decreased Serum Levels of TRAIL after Acute Myocardial Infarction

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    BACKGROUND: Since soluble TRAIL exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic activities both in vitro and in animal models, this study was designed to assess the relationship between the serum levels of TRAIL and clinical outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Levels of TRAIL were measured by ELISA in serial serum samples obtained from 60 patients admitted for AMI, both during hospitalization and in a follow-up of 12 months, as well as in 60 healthy control subjects. Serum levels of TRAIL were significantly decreased in patients with AMI at baseline (within 24 hours from admission), compared with healthy controls, and showed a significant inverse correlation with a series of negative prognostic markers, such as CK, CK-MB and BNP. TRAIL serum levels progressively increased at discharge, but normalized only at 6-12 months after AMI. Of note, low TRAIL levels at the patient discharge were associated with increased incidence of cardiac death and heart failure in the 12-month follow-up, even after adjustment for demographic and clinical risk parameters (hazard ratio [HR] of 0.93 [95% CI, 0.89 to 0.97]; p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although the number of patients studied was limited, our findings indicate for the first time that circulating TRAIL might represent an important predictor of cardiovascular events, independent of conventional risk markers
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