1,222 research outputs found

    TFOS lifestyle report executive summary:A lifestyle epidemic - Ocular surface disease

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    The Tear Film & Ocular Surface Society (TFOS) Workshop entitled 'A Lifestyle Epidemic: Ocular Surface Disease' was a global initiative undertaken to establish the direct and indirect impacts of everyday lifestyle choices and challenges on ocular surface health. This article presents an Executive Summary of the evidence-based conclusions and recommendations of the 10-chapter TFOS Lifestyle Workshop report. Lifestyle factors described within the report include contact lenses, cosmetics, digital environment, elective medications and procedures, environmental conditions, lifestyle challenges, nutrition, and societal challenges. Each topic area chapter comprises a narrative-style review of the current literature and seeks to answer a key topic-specific question using systematic review methodology. The TFOS Lifestyle Workshop report was published in its entirety in the April 2023 and July 2023 issues of The Ocular Surface. Links to downloadable versions of the document and supplementary material, including report translations, are available on the TFOS website: www.TearFilm.org

    Characteristics of corneal microcysts in Hong Kong children wearing orthokeratology

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    Purpose: To report the characteristics (prevalence, severity, and location) of corneal epithelial microcysts and investigate associated risk factors in children wearing orthokeratology (ortho-k) lenses. Method: Ninety-five myopic children wearing ortho-k lenses (examined by one of three independent investigators from March to September 2020) were included in this retrospective cross-sectional study. Pertinent data at baseline before ortho-k treatment and at the aftercare visits (the first visit when the microcysts were observed for children with microcysts, and the last visit before October 2020 for children without microcysts) were retrieved and analysed. Results: A microcystic response was observed in 52.6% of children wearing ortho-k lenses. Children with high myopia (≥ 5.00 D) had a higher prevalence (100.0%, 23/23) and severity (69.5% (16/23) > grade 2 Efron scale) compared to children with low myopia (≤ 4.00 D) (prevalence of 37.5% (27/72) and 7.0% (5/72) > grade 2, p < 0.001). Microcysts were predominantly (86.0%) observed in the region of the inferior pigmented arc, typically originating in the inferior mid-peripheral cornea, and expanding over time into a semi- or whole annulus. Baseline myopia and topographical change at the treatment zone centre were significantly greater (p < 0.05) in low myopic children with microcysts (univariate analyses). Conclusions: During the COVID-19 pandemic, probably due to lifestyle changes, microcysts were frequently observed in children wearing ortho-k lenses and were associated with higher baseline myopia. Practitioners should examine ortho-k wearers with caution using a slit lamp with high magnification and illumination, especially the mid-peripheral cornea. The use of highly oxygen permeable lenses and frequent aftercare are necessary for ortho-k wearers, especially those with higher myopia.</p

    TFOS lifestyle: Impact of contact lenses on the ocular surface

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    Several lifestyle choices made by contact lens wearers can have adverse consequences on ocular health. These include being non-adherent to contact lens care, sleeping in lenses, ill-advised purchasing options, not seeing an eyecare professional for regular aftercare visits, wearing lenses when feeling unwell, wearing lenses too soon after various forms of ophthalmic surgery, and wearing lenses when engaged in risky behaviours (e.g., using tobacco, alcohol or recreational drugs). Those with a pre-existing compromised ocular surface may find that contact lens wear exacerbates ocular disease morbidity. Conversely, contact lenses may have various therapeutic benefits. The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has impinged upon the lifestyle of contact lens wearers, introducing challenges such as mask-associated dry eye, contact lens discomfort with increased use of digital devices, inadvertent exposure to hand sanitizers, and reduced use of lenses. Wearing contact lenses in challenging environments, such as in the presence of dust and noxious chemicals, or where there is the possibility of ocular trauma (e.g., sport or working with tools) can be problematic, although in some instances lenses can be protective. Contact lenses can be worn for sport, theatre, at high altitude, driving at night, in the military and in space, and special considerations are required when prescribing in such situations to ensure successful outcomes. A systematic review and meta-analysis, incorporated within the review, identified that the influence of lifestyle factors on soft contact lens dropout remains poorly understood, and is an area in need of further research. Overall, this report investigated lifestyle-related choices made by clinicians and contact lens wearers and discovered that when appropriate lifestyle choices are made, contact lens wear can enhance the quality of life of wearers

    Corneal Dendritic Cell Dynamics Are Associated with Clinical Factors in Type 1 Diabetes

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    Time-lapsed in vivo corneal confocal microscopy (IVCCM) has shown that corneal dendritic cells (DCs) migrate at approximately 1 µm/min in healthy humans. We have undertaken IVCCM of the whorl region to compare the density of rounded DCs, and DCs with (wDCs) and without (woDCs) dendrites and dynamics; trajectory (length travelled/time), displacement (distance from origin to endpoint/time) speeds and persistence ratio (displacement/trajectory) of woDCs in subjects with type 1 diabetes (T1D) (n = 20) and healthy controls (n = 10). Only the wDC density was higher (p = 0.02) in subjects with T1D compared to controls. There was no significant difference in cell dynamics between subjects with T1D and controls. woDC density correlated directly with HDL cholesterol (r = 0.59, p = 0.007) and inversely with triglycerides (r = −0.61, p = 0.005), whilst round-shaped cell density correlated inversely with HDL cholesterol (r = −0.54, p = 0.007). Displacement, trajectory, and persistency correlated significantly with eGFR (mL/min) (r = 0.74, p < 0.001; r = 0.48, p = 0.031; r = 0.58, p = 0.008, respectively). We show an increase in wDC density but no change in any other DC sub-type or alteration in cell dynamics in T1D. However, there were associations between DC density and lipid parameters and between DC dynamics and renal function. IVCCM provides evidence of a link between immune cell dynamics with lipid levels and renal function.</p

    Bibliometric analysis of the keratoconus literature

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    Clinical Relevance: Clinicians, researchers funding agencies and indeed the general public can benefit from knowledge of the most highly cited papers and most impactful authors, institutions, countries and journals in the field of keratoconus. Background: Bibliometrics relating to the keratoconus literature were derived to enable identification of the most impactful papers published, as well as the leading authors, institutions, countries and journals. Methods: A search was undertaken of the titles of papers on the Scopus database to identify keratoconus-related articles. The 20 most highly cited papers were determined from the total list of 4,419 papers found. Rank-order lists by count were assembled for the ‘top 20ʹ in each of four categories: authors, institutions, countries and journals. A subject-specific keratoconus-related h-index (hKC-index) was derived for each constituent of each category to serve as a measure of impact in the field. The top 10 constituents of each category were ranked by hKC-index and tabulated for consideration. Results: The hKC-index of the keratoconus field is 125. The 4,419 papers have been cited a total of 98,010 times, and 18.5% of these papers have never been cited. The most highly cited paper is a general review of keratoconus by Yaron Rabinowitz, who is also the most impactful author in the field (hKC = 31). The Cedars Sinai Medical Center in the United States produces the most impactful keratoconus-related papers (hKC = 36), and the United States is the most impactful country (hKC = 91). The Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery is the most impactful journal (hKC = 55). Conclusion: Keratoconus is a topic of high interest in the clinical and scientific literature. Highly cited papers and impactful authors, institutions, countries and journals are identified.</p

    Corneal Confocal Microscopy Identifies People with Type 1 Diabetes with More Rapid Corneal Nerve Fibre Loss and Progression of Neuropathy

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    There is a need to accurately identify patients with diabetes at higher risk of developing and progressing diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Fifty subjects with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) and sixteen age matched healthy controls underwent detailed neuropathy assessments including symptoms, signs, quantitative sensory testing (QST), nerve conduction studies (NCS), intra epidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD) and corneal confocal microscopy (CCM) at baseline and after 2 years of follow-up. Overall, people with type 1 diabetes mellitus showed no significant change in HbA1c, blood pressure, lipids or neuropathic symptoms, signs, QST, neurophysiology, IENFD and CCM over 2 years. However, a sub-group (n = 11, 22%) referred to as progressors, demonstrated rapid corneal nerve fiber loss (RCNFL) with a reduction in corneal nerve fiber density (CNFD) (p = 0.0006), branch density (CNBD) (p = 0.0002), fiber length (CNFL) (p = 0.0002) and sural (p = 0.04) and peroneal (p = 0.05) nerve conduction velocities, which was not related to a change in HbA1c or cardiovascular risk factors. The majority of people with T1DM and good risk factor control do not show worsening of neuropathy over 2 years. However, CCM identifies a sub-group of people with T1DM who show a more rapid decline in corneal nerve fibers and nerve conduction velocity.</p