2,242 research outputs found

    Development of computerized analysis for solid propellant combustion (ISAP-2)

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    This report is an improvement of ISAP-1, SRB Vorticity-Acoustic Coupled Instability Analysis, September 1986. Included in this report are the automatic generation of all input data for grid configuration, boundary conditions for coupled acoustic and vortical field calculations, transformation of all dimensions to a parametric form, resulting in flexibility for the user to define the size of the problem (geometric configurations) with reduction in storage (15 to 65%) and computer run-time (50 to 75%). Additional research is required for the following areas: (1) turbulence effects; (2) nonlinear wave oscillations; and (3) chemistry upon combustion instability

    NAM 2017 report: A national plan to eliminate hepatitis B and C in the United States by 2030 and the AASLD’s response

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    Peer Reviewedhttps://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/138352/1/hep29361.pdfhttps://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/138352/2/hep29361_am.pd

    IL28B Alleles Exert an Additive Dose Effect When Applied to HCV-HIV Coinfected Persons Undergoing Peginterferon and Ribavirin Therapy

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    BACKGROUND: Genetic studies have demonstrated a strong association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at IL28B and response to treatment with peginterferon (PEG) and ribavirin (RBV) in HCV monoinfected persons. We sought to test these associations in a prospective PEG / weight based ribavirin (WBR) treatment trial (ACTG A5178) (National Institution of Health registration number NCT00078403) in persons with HCV-HIV coinfection, and to develop a prediction score. METHODS: We selected subjects enrolled in A5178 who completed at least the first 12 weeks of the trial and had DNA available, and genotyped three SNPs at IL28B (rs12979860, rs12980275, rs8099917). We used multivariate logistic regression analysis to evaluate the association between IL28B SNPs and HCV treatment outcomes and to develop the prediction score. RESULTS: 231 HCV/HIV coinfected subjects were included. We observed a strong association between IL28B genotype and response to therapy among those with genotypes 1 or 4 (odds ratio for complete early virologic responses (cEVR) and sustained virologic response (SVR) was 2.98 [1.7-5.3] and 3.4 [1.7-6.9], respectively, for each additional copy of the C allele of rs12979860). Differences in frequency of the responder allele explained some of the discrepancy in HCV treatment outcomes between blacks and whites. A simple pretreatment prediction score that incorporates the IL28B genotype and baseline HCV viral load has a 93% negative predictive value (NPV) for SVR. CONCLUSIONS: IL28B SNPs have an additive allele dose effect in predicting HCV treatment outcomes in HCV/HIV coinfected persons and can be incorporated into a simple pretreatment prediction score that could minimize the risk of exposure to PEG/RBV therapy for persons with unfavorable scores

    Protein Kinase R Modulates c-Fos and c-Jun Signaling to Promote Proliferation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Hepatitis C Virus Infection

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    Double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase R (PKR) is known to be upregulated by hepatitis C virus (HCV) and overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the precise roles of PKR in HCC with HCV infection remain unclear. Two HCV replicating cell lines (JFH-1 and H77s), generated by transfection of Huh7.5.1 cells, were used for experiments reported here. PKR expression was modulated with siRNA and a PKR expression plasmid, and cancer-related genes were assessed by real-time PCR and Western blotting; cell lines were further analyzed using a proliferation assay. Modulation of genes by PKR was also assessed in 34 human HCC specimens. Parallel changes in c-Fos and c-Jun gene expression with PKR were observed. Levels of phosphorylated c-Fos and c-Jun were upregulated by an increase of PKR, and were related to levels of phosphorylated JNK1 and Erk1/2. DNA binding activities of c-Fos and c-Jun also correlated with PKR expression, and cell proliferation was dependent on PKR-modulated c-Fos and c-Jun expression. Coordinate expression of c-Jun and PKR was confirmed in human HCC specimens with HCV infection. PKR upregulated c-Fos and c-Jun activities through activation of Erk1/2 and JNK1, respectively. These modulations resulted in HCC cell proliferation with HCV infection. These findings suggest that PKR-related proliferation pathways could be an attractive therapeutic target

    Serum Vitamin D Levels Are Not Predictive of the Progression of Chronic Liver Disease in Hepatitis C Patients with Advanced Fibrosis

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    In animal models and human cross-sectional studies, vitamin D deficiency has been associated with liver disease progression. Vitamin D supplementation has been suggested as a treatment to prevent disease progression. We sought to evaluate the role of vitamin D levels in predicting chronic liver disease development. We conducted a nested case-control study of vitamin D levels in subjects with (cases) and without (controls) liver histologic progression or clinical decompensation over the course of the HALT-C Trial. Vitamin D levels were measured at 4 points over 45 months. 129 cases and 129 aged-matched controls were included. No difference in baseline vitamin D levels were found between cases and controls. (44.8 ng/mL vs. 44.0 ng/mL, P = 0.74). Vitamin D levels declined in cases and controls over time (P = 0.0005), however, there was no difference in the level of decline (P = 0.37). Among study subjects with diabetes mellitius, baseline vitamin D levels were higher in cases, 49.9 ng/mL, than controls, 36.3 ng/mL. (P = 0.03) In addition, baseline vitamin D levels were higher in black case subjects, 32.7 ng/mL, than in black control subjects, 25.2 ng/mL (P = 0.08) No difference in vitamin D levels was found between patients with and without progression of hepatitis C-associated liver disease over 4 years. Our data do not suggest any role for vitamin D supplementation in patients with advanced chronic hepatitis C and raise the possibility that higher vitamin D levels may be associated with disease progression