2,853 research outputs found

    Hadronic event structure, power corrections and the strong coupling at LEP

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    Infrared and collinear events shapes are suited to directly probe properties of hard QCD. They are traditionally used to measure the strong coupling and to test the gauge structure of QCD. Perturbative predictions exist in several variations all of which depend on the renormalisation scheme leading to large theoretical uncertainties in the determination of alphasalpha_s. To overcome this dominating error more and more schemes for setting the renormalisation scale are investigated. The application of RGI perturbation theory shows an incredible small spread of őĪs\alpha_s indicating a reduced uncertainty and allows a measurement of the ő≤\beta-function directly from mean values.Comment: 5 pages, uses moriond.sty (included). Contribution to "XXXVIIth Rencontres de Moriond, QCD and hadronic interactions", Les Arcs, France, March 2002. See http://www.delphi.uni-wuppertal.de/qcd/Talks.html#Moriond200

    Top quark properties and cross-section

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    The CDF and D0 experiments have performed measurements of production and decay properties of the top quark with an unprecedented precision. This talk gives an overview of top quark properties and cross-section measurements performed with top quark pair events in proton anti-proton collision at 1.96TeV with a luminosity of up to 3.6 fb‚ąí1

    Scenario generation and scenario quality using the cone of plausibility

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    The intelligence analysis domain is a critical area for futures work. Indeed, intelligence analysts‚Äô judgments of security threats are based on considerations of how futures may unfold, and as such play a vital role in informing policy- and decision-making. In this domain, futures are typically considered using qualitative scenario generation techniques such as the cone of plausibility (CoP). We empirically examined the quality of scenarios generated using this technique on five criteria: completeness, context (otherwise known as ‚Äėrelevance/pertinence‚Äô), plausibility, coherence, and order effects (i.e., ‚Äėtransparency‚Äô). Participants were trained to use the CoP and then asked to generate scenarios that might follow within six months of the Turkish government banning Syrian refugees from entering the country. On average, participants generated three scenarios, and these could be characterized as baseline, best case, and worst case. All scenarios were significantly more likely to be of high quality on the ‚Äėcoherence‚Äô criterion compared to the other criteria. Scenario quality was independent of scenario type. However, scenarios generated first were significantly more likely to be of high quality on the context and order effects criteria compared to those generated afterwards. We discuss the implications of these findings for the use of the CoP as well as other qualitative scenario generation techniques in futures studies

    Hadron masses and power corrections to event shapes

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    It is widely believed that hadronisation leads to 1/Q corrections to e+e- event shapes. We show that there are further corrections, proportional to (ln Q)^A/Q with A=4C_A/beta_0~=1.6, associated with hadron masses and whose relative normalisations can be calculated from one observable to another. At today's energies these extra corrections can be of the same order of magnitude as `traditional' 1/Q corrections. They fall into two classes: universal and non-universal. The latter can be eliminated by suitable redefinitions of the observables

    Using scenarios to forecast outcomes of a refugee crisis

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    The Syrian civil war has led to millions of Syrians fleeing the country, and has resulted in a humanitarian crisis. By considering how such socio-political events may unfold, scenarios can lead to informed forecasts that can be used for decision-making. We examined the relationship between scenarios and forecasts in the context of the Syrian refugee crisis. Forty Turkish students trained to use a brainstorming technique generated scenarios that might follow within six months of the Turkish government banning Syrian refugees from entering the country. Participants generated from 3-6 scenarios. Over half were rated as ‚Äėhigh‚Äô quality in terms of completeness, relevance/pertinence, plausibility, coherence, and transparency (order effects). Scenario quality was unaffected by scenario quantity. Even though no forecasts were requested, participants‚Äô first scenarios contained from 0-17 forecasts. Mean forecast accuracy was 45% and this was unaffected by forecast quantity. Therefore, brainstorming can offer a simple and quick way of generating scenarios and forecasts that can potentially help decision-makers tackle humanitarian crises

    Tuning Monte Carlo Generators: The Perugia Tunes

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    We present 9 new tunes of the pT-ordered shower and underlying-event model in PYTHIA 6.4. These "Perugia" tunes update and supersede the older "S0" family. The data sets used to constrain the models include hadronic Z0 decays at LEP, Tevatron minimum-bias data at 630, 1800, and 1960 GeV, Tevatron Drell-Yan data at 1800 and 1960 GeV, and SPS min-bias data at 200, 546, and 900 GeV. In addition to the central parameter set, called "Perugia 0", we introduce a set of 8 related "Perugia Variations" that attempt to systematically explore soft, hard, parton density, and colour structure variations in the theoretical parameters. Based on these variations, a best-guess prediction of the charged track multiplicity in inelastic, nondiffractive minimum-bias events at the LHC is made. Note that these tunes can only be used with PYTHIA 6, not with PYTHIA 8. Note: this report was updated in March 2011 with a new set of variations, collectively labeled "Perugia 2011", that are optimized for matching applications and which also take into account some lessons from the early LHC data. In order not to break the original text, these are described separately in Appendix B. Note 2: a subsequent "Perugia 2012" update is described in Appendix C.Comment: 46 page

    'Appreciating' Drainage Assets in New Zealand Cities: Rain Garden Treatment and Hydraulic Performance

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    Despite recognising rain gardens as a best management practice (BMP) to mitigate urban stormwater runoff, there is a dearth of knowledge about their treatment and infiltration performance. It is believed that organic substrates may enhance some contaminant removal but hinder hydraulic throughput although data showing this is sparse. In order to evaluate the influence of substrate composition on bioinfiltrative system effectiveness, mesocosm-scale (180 L, 0.17 m2) laboratory rain gardens were established. Saturated (constant head) hydraulic conductivity was determined before and after the experimental treatment tests that employed stormwater collected from a neighbouring catchment to investigate contaminant removal efficiencies. The principal contaminant (Zn, Cu, Pb and nutrients) removal efficiencies were investigated for three substrates comprising various proportions of organic topsoil. All total metal concentrations in the effluent were <50% of influent concentrations, with the exception of copper in the topsoil-only system that had negligible reduction due to a high dissolved fraction. The system comprising topsoil only had the lowest saturated hydraulic conductivity of 162 mm/hr and demonstrated the poorest metal (Cu, Zn) removal efficiencies. Interestingly, the system with a combination of sand and topsoil demonstrated most promising metal removal of Cu (53%), Zn (81.2%) and Pb (89.1%) with adequate hydraulic performance (296 mm/hr) required for a stormwater infiltrative system. Overall, metal removal was greater at an effluent pH of 7.38 compared to the 6.24 pH provided in the raw stormwater. Some pH buffering was provided by the calcareous sand in two of the systems, whereas the topsoil-only system lacked such buffering potential to facilitate adequate metal removal. These data highlight the influence of organic topsoil on pH that clearly governs metal speciation and hence removal efficacy in bioinfiltrative systems. Nitrate was net exported from all the systems, especially topsoil contrary to what is believed to be easily removed

    Stability and electronic structure of the complex K2_2PtCl6_6 structure-type hydrides

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    The stability and bonding of the ternary complex K2_2PtCl6_6 structure hydrides is discussed using first principles density functional calculations. The cohesion is dominated by ionic contributions, but ligand field effects are important, and are responsible for the 18-electron rule. Similarities to oxides are discussed in terms of the electronic structure. However, phonon calculations for Sr2_2RuH6_6 also show differences, particularly in the polarizability of the RuH6_6 octahedra. Nevertheless, the yet to be made compounds Pb2_2RuH6_6 and Be2_2FeH6_6 are possible ferroelectrics. The electronic structure and magnetic properties of the decomposition product, FeBe2_2 are reported. Implications of the results for H storage are discussed
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