Middlesex University Research Repository

    Dios los cría...

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    Dios los cría… surveys the contribution that composer and bassist Barry Guy and Baroque violinist Maya Homburger have made to music over the past two decades. Guy is perhaps the most significant bassist in the international free jazz scene. Homburger is a leading figure in Historically Informed Performance (HIP). Over the last 20 years they have worked together in a number of genres and have released numerous ground-breaking recordings of contemporary, free jazz and Baroque music. This article explores their unique performance signatures and the contribution they have made to cross-genre composition and performance

    Management, worker responses and an enterprise trade union in transition

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    We examine management and labour process changes in a Moldovan factory to examine their impact on the trade union and to test the utility of institutionalist approaches. Changes in management structures and work organisation have hollowed out key legacies, notably the ‘labour collective’ and informal bargaining, and evoked resistance from workers. The union is disconnected from worker resistance and is faced with major issues concerning its role. We conceptualise it as a ‘suspended institution’

    The management of an ageing workforce: organisational policies in Germany and Britain

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    Demographic change as well as pressure from the European Union and national government are forcing organisations to change age-discriminatory Human Resource Management (HRM) approaches. Based on a qualitative analysis of eight British and German organisations, we found that commitment, scope, coverage and implementation of age management differ due to country-specific institutions, particularly government, in nudging employers and unions to preferred age practices. This confirms the path-dependency concept suggested by institutional theory. Nevertheless, we also found that industry-specific factors mediate the implementation of age management, leading to some convergence across countries. This indicates that organisations deviate from the institutional path to implement practices that they deem important

    Taviani e la politica estera italiana degli anni cinquanta (1949-1954)

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    Paolo Emilio Taviani (Genoa 1912 - Rome 2001) was a partisan leader in Liguria, then a member of the Consulta and the Constituent Council and later he was elected to the Italian Parliament from 1946 until 1991 when he was appointed “Senator for Life” for “social, literary and scholarly merit”. Several times minister in the Republic’s governments from 1953 to 1974, he was also an economist and historian of the life of Christopher Columbus, for which he obtained 22 honorary degrees in 13 countries. For his activity in the Resistance, Taviani would later receive the Gold Medal for Merit in War in Italy, Gold medals for Merit in the United States and the Soviet Union, and the title of Grand Official of the Légion d’Honneur in France. This work analyses his thought, and his political life from 1949 to 1954, rebuilding his role on Italian foreign policy and on the early European integration process. As secretary of the Christian Democratic Party first and undersecretary to the Foreign Ministry and Minister of Defence after, inside the Italian government Taviani was one of the main supporters of the Atlantic Alliance and European Integration. It was he who in the Italian parliament in 1949 pronounced for the government the speech for the entry of Italy into NATO, and he would always guide the Italian team to the work of creating the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Defence community . Lastly, from 1953, as Minister of Defence he played an important role also in the return of the city of Trieste to Italy, and to authorize for the first time the installation of American bases on Italian territory. __________________________________ Paolo Emilio Taviani (Genova 1912 - Roma 2001)è stato un leader partigiano ligure, membro della consulta nazionale e dell'assemblea costituente per essere infine eletto al parlamento italiano dal 1946 sino al 1991 quando venne nominato senatore a vita per “Meriti in campo scientifico e sociale”. Ricoprì ininterrottamente la carica di ministro della repubblica dal 1953 al 1974, è stato anche un economista e uno storico di Cristoforo Colombo per cui ottenette 22 lauree honoris causa in 13 paesi. Infine per la sua attività durante al resistenza Taviani ricevette anche alcune delle massime onorificenze a livello nazionale di numerosi paesi,tra cui la Medaglia d'oro al Merito in Italia, la Medaglia della libertà con palme oro degli Stati Uniti, le insegne di Gran d'ufficiale della Legione d'onore della repubblica francese, la medaglia ai Veterani della Resistenza europea dell'URSS e le chiavi della città di Washington. Questo lavoro analizza il suo pensiero e la sua attività politica dal 1949 al 1954, ricostruendone il ruolo nella politica estera italiana e nella costruzione delle prime istituzioni europee. Come segretario della DC italiana prima e come sottosegretario agli esteri e ministro della difesa dopo, all'interno del governo italiano Taviani fu uno dei principali sostenitore dell'Alleanza Atlantica e del processo di integrazione europea. Fu lui a pronunciare a nome del governo il discorso di adesione dell'Italia alla Nato in parlamento nel 1949, e fu sempre lui a guidare la squadra italiana durante i lavori per la Ceca e e la Ced. Infine a partire dal 1953 come ministro della difesa giocò un ruolo importante nel ritorno di Trieste all'Italia e nell'autorizzare per la prima volta l'installazione delle basi americane sul suolo italiano

    Vulnerable workers in the eurozone crisis

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    The general adoption of austerity policies throughout the EU and in particular in the eurozone is having very adverse effects on the level of employment, on job and employment security and on working conditions. These effects are also highly differentiated, being especially intense in the countries facing sovereign debt crises. The following paper presents some evidence for the countries in question drawn primarily from the stability programmes and national reform programmes which member states are required to submit each year to the Commission. The present paper first gives a brief description of the new policy surveillance system in the eurozone. Then it is suggested that the macroeconomic policies adopted in the context of reinforced surveillance are incoherent. The implications of austerity policies for workers are discussed; young workers are clearly badly affected. Details are given of acute pressures on European social models in the economically weaker countries, taking Portugal, Greece and Ireland as examples. It is concluded that the new policy regime in the eurozone makes social dumping in effect the central social strategy in the monetary union

    Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies with 128.9 million children, adolescents, and adults

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    Background: Underweight, overweight, and obesity in childhood and adolescence are associated with adverse health consequences throughout the life-course. Our aim was to estimate worldwide trends in mean body-mass index (BMI) and a comprehensive set of BMI categories that cover underweight to obesity in children and adolescents, and to compare trends with those of adults. Methods: We pooled 2416 population-based studies with measurements of height and weight on 128·9 million participants aged 5 years and older, including 31·5 million aged 5–19 years. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate trends from 1975 to 2016 in 200 countries for mean BMI and for prevalence of BMI in the following categories for children and adolescents aged 5–19 years: more than 2 SD below the median of the WHO growth reference for children and adolescents (referred to as moderate and severe underweight hereafter), 2 SD to more than 1 SD below the median (mild underweight), 1 SD below the median to 1 SD above the median (healthy weight), more than 1 SD to 2 SD above the median (overweight but not obese), and more than 2 SD above the median (obesity). Findings: Regional change in age-standardised mean BMI in girls from 1975 to 2016 ranged from virtually no change (−0·01 kg/m2 per decade; 95% credible interval −0·42 to 0·39, posterior probability [PP] of the observed decrease being a true decrease=0·5098) in eastern Europe to an increase of 1·00 kg/m2 per decade (0·69–1·35, PP>0·9999) in central Latin America and an increase of 0·95 kg/m2 per decade (0·64–1·25, PP>0·9999) in Polynesia and Micronesia. The range for boys was from a non-significant increase of 0·09 kg/m2 per decade (−0·33 to 0·49, PP=0·6926) in eastern Europe to an increase of 0·77 kg/m2 per decade (0·50–1·06, PP>0·9999) in Polynesia and Micronesia. Trends in mean BMI have recently flattened in northwestern Europe and the high-income English-speaking and Asia-Pacific regions for both sexes, southwestern Europe for boys, and central and Andean Latin America for girls. By contrast, the rise in BMI has accelerated in east and south Asia for both sexes, and southeast Asia for boys. Global age-standardised prevalence of obesity increased from 0·7% (0·4–1·2) in 1975 to 5·6% (4·8–6·5) in 2016 in girls, and from 0·9% (0·5–1·3) in 1975 to 7·8% (6·7–9·1) in 2016 in boys; the prevalence of moderate and severe underweight decreased from 9·2% (6·0–12·9) in 1975 to 8·4% (6·8–10·1) in 2016 in girls and from 14·8% (10·4–19·5) in 1975 to 12·4% (10·3–14·5) in 2016 in boys. Prevalence of moderate and severe underweight was highest in India, at 22·7% (16·7–29·6) among girls and 30·7% (23·5–38·0) among boys. Prevalence of obesity was more than 30% in girls in Nauru, the Cook Islands, and Palau; and boys in the Cook Islands, Nauru, Palau, Niue, and American Samoa in 2016. Prevalence of obesity was about 20% or more in several countries in Polynesia and Micronesia, the Middle East and north Africa, the Caribbean, and the USA. In 2016, 75 (44–117) million girls and 117 (70–178) million boys worldwide were moderately or severely underweight. In the same year, 50 (24–89) million girls and 74 (39–125) million boys worldwide were obese. Interpretation: The rising trends in children's and adolescents' BMI have plateaued in many high-income countries, albeit at high levels, but have accelerated in parts of Asia, with trends no longer correlated with those of adults

    Social impact measurement and non-profit organisations: compliance, resistance, and promotion

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    Non-profit organisations are under increasing pressure to demonstrate their social impact. This paper examines the experience and behaviour of non-profit organisations in the UK in relation to a demand for impact evaluations. It shows that organisations both accept and resist control, and use evaluations for promotional purposes. External resource providers request organisations to present evidence on how resources are used and what organisations have achieved. However, non-profit organisations can also proactively use social impact measurement as a way of exerting control over their environment through using their discretion in deciding what to measure, how to measure and what to report. The analysis uses a combination of the concepts acceptance, rejection, compliance and strategic decoupling to distinguish different organisational responses to external demands for impact evaluation

    Bio-inspired computation: where we stand and what's next

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    In recent years, the research community has witnessed an explosion of literature dealing with the adaptation of behavioral patterns and social phenomena observed in nature towards efficiently solving complex computational tasks. This trend has been especially dramatic in what relates to optimization problems, mainly due to the unprecedented complexity of problem instances, arising from a diverse spectrum of domains such as transportation, logistics, energy, climate, social networks, health and industry 4.0, among many others. Notwithstanding this upsurge of activity, research in this vibrant topic should be steered towards certain areas that, despite their eventual value and impact on the field of bio-inspired computation, still remain insufficiently explored to date. The main purpose of this paper is to outline the state of the art and to identify open challenges concerning the most relevant areas within bio-inspired optimization. An analysis and discussion are also carried out over the general trajectory followed in recent years by the community working in this field, thereby highlighting the need for reaching a consensus and joining forces towards achieving valuable insights into the understanding of this family of optimization techniques

    The evocation and expression of emotion through documentary animation

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    How might an animator distil and study emotion? Could animation itself be a means to unlock meaning that previous experiments have not been able to access? Animation has the power to both highlight and conceal emotions as expressed through body movement and gesture. When we view live action (human interview) documentary footage, we are exposed not just to the spoken words, but the subtle nuances of body movements. How much might be lost when documentary footage is transposed into animation, or indeed, what might be gained, translated through the personal and artistic view of the animator? Drawing on my own previous experience as a games animator, now using research through practice methodology, this paper explores the results of the first of a series of animations created to explore the more subtle nuances of gesture. Though the medium of a documentary style interview, opposing topics are used to evoke strong emotions; firstly of happiness, then of sadness, with a view to accessing real rather than acted (simulated) emotions and their associated body movements

    A physarum-inspired approach to supply chain network design

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    A supply chain is a system which moves products from a supplier to customers, which plays a very important role in all economic activities. This paper proposes a novel algorithm for a supply chain network design inspired by biological principles of nutrients’ distribution in protoplasmic networks of slime mould Physarum polycephalum. The algorithm handles supply networks where capacity investments and product flows are decision variables, and the networks are required to satisfy product demands. Two features of the slime mould are adopted in our algorithm. The first is the continuity of flux during the iterative process, which is used in real-time updating of the costs associated with the supply links. The second feature is adaptivity. The supply chain can converge to an equilibrium state when costs are changed. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the practicality and flexibility of the proposed method algorithm
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