UC Research Repository

    Developing a better buttermilk solution

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    This document is a project document based on finding a more economical way to use buttermilk at Synlait Milk Ltd. Buttermilk is a by-product from the Anhydrous Milk Fat (AMF), which is the concentration of cream. It is a problem for many dairy companies in New Zealand, including Synlait. the problems arise due to the opportunity cost of using it. It is a low value product, but made in substantial quantities at a ratio of 55% buttermilk to 45% AMF. This feasibility study contains an analysis on buttermilk at Synlait, including opportunity costs and benefits with processing buttermilk into buttermilk powder. It provides insight into the feasibility of implementing a ‘washed cream’ process at Synlait which would provide an alternative method for using buttermilk. The feasibility of separating buttermilk components for separate use is also examined. Overall, this project provides a more economical solution for buttermilk use at Synlait Milk Ltd

    How can teacher leadership become the norm in schools?

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    Paul’s Ideological Reversal of Power: Reading “Two” Corinthians during the Reign of Donald J. Trump

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    There are times, as the Roman imperial poet Juvenal observed, when it seems impossible �not to write satire (difficile est saturam non scribere).� Yet such a temptation should be resisted. The point of philosophical-political analysis is neither to laugh nor cry but to understand. Satire, we might say, remains at a superstructural level of analysis, whereas what is needed is also infrastructural inquiry. This is especially the case with U. S. President Donald J. Trump. Paying too much attention to Trump�s authoritarian language, mannerisms, and tics � his �unbridled id� � is to miss his own foundational self-description as a builder

    Citizen Trump

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    There was at least one time when Donald Trump showed himself more capable than any other American president. When asked to name his favorite film, Donald Trump responded with an answer worthy of a film scholar. He named Orson Welles�s Citizen Kane (1941) as not just the greatest film ever made but as his personal favorite. Surely this is the best answer that any American president has ever given to this question. But when we first consider it, this answer seems like it must have been an unconscious slip. Trump identifies as his favorite the one film that chronicles the emptiness of a rich and powerful man who bears a remarkable resemblance to himself

    A preliminary study of the transport of air from Africa and Australia to New Zealand

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    Kinematic trajectory modelling is used in a preliminary examination of inter-regional transport of air within the Southern Hemisphere. In particular, the westerly zonal transport of air in the lower troposphere from southern Africa and Australia to New Zealand is determined for January and July, using both forward and backward trajectories originating or ending up in the 850-800 hPa layer respectively. Mean transport plumes are derived from swarms of individual trajectories, and the results show that in winter around 22% of air originating over the central interior of South Africa reaches the central Tasman Sea south of New Zealand. In summer the amount is insignificant owing to seasonal changes in the position of major circulation features. In contrast, both summer and winter low-level air transport from southeastern and southwestern Australia and adjacent oceans to New Zealand is substantial, with 83% of all low-level air parcels from the Sydney area in summer passing over central New Zealand 5 days later. In winter the transport plume passes over the northern part of the North Island within 3 days. Back trajectories show that in some seasons two distinct paths are followed by air arriving at Christchurch and Auckland, from the west-northwest and southwest. Analysis of the vertical structure of the transport plumes arriving in New Zealand shows that the westerly air reaching Auckland in the 850-800 hPa layer does so in a subsiding airstream throughout the year, whereas that arriving in the same layer over Christchurch experiences only minor subsidence en route from Australia and the ocean to the south. This descending motion is related to the dominance of anticyclomc circulation, particularly over the northern section of the New Zealand region

    Crash Data Collection - Is it Time for a Rethink of the Process?

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    Fatigue is an insidious killer resulting in many fatal and serious injuries to vehicle occupants on road networks. Fatigue has on the whole has had disappointing combined stakeholder national strategic emphasis in New Zealand, but for many it continues to emerge as one of the key factors in road crashes. It is presented that the crash database significantly under represents the actual incident of fatigue crashes. On the positive side there has been many individuals or groups putting effort put into combating this issue throughout the country. What is lacking is a national strategy. The problem of driver fatigue is much bigger than a lot of people understand. Recent research (Oppenhuis, 2003; Smith, 2006) has presented that fatigue is greatly under reported as a causal factor in crash statistics. Accurate crash data is essential for the analysis and understanding of causal and contributing factors into road crashes. Without this key data the analysis of locations, causal factors and trends is unable to be accurately determined. The crash report system that is currently utilised in New Zealand has served us well. New Zealand has had a nation wide systematic process for data collection and analysis for a number of years. However, this process has been relatively unchanged and it seems that the time is right to review and update the system based on recent research. This particular research has demonstrated that additional data is now required for the identification of issues such as driver fatigue, among others. These issues present difficulties in data collection utilising the current forms. We have a moral obligation to the population of New Zealand to ensure accurate data s gathered. Improvements to the accurate reporting and analysis of driver fatigue will enhance awareness of the issues and assist in the recognition that a national strategy focused on fatigue is required with actions implemented through the application of the 3 E’s – Engineering, Education and Enforcement. More accurate coding of crashes will lead to better funding targeting

    Scaffolding and Fading Problem Selection in SQL-Tutor

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    Scaffolding is widely accepted as an effective strategy to use in learning environments. It is also agreed that for successful learning, scaffolding must fade to allow the learner to be in control of his/her own learning and acquire metacognitive strategies. Although scaffolding is used in almost all intelligent educational systems, fading is usually missing. In this paper we present an experiment whose goal is to study the appropriateness of fading. The study is performed in the context of the SQL-Tutor system, and the particular skill we focus on is the ability to select appropriate problems. We hypothesize that more able students would be better off when selecting problems on their own, and test whether this is valid. We also expect that for less able student, the most beneficial condition is faded problem selection: initially the system selects the problem for the student, giving explanations of why particular problems are good, and over time, the control over problem selection is given to the student. The results suggest that such an approach is effective

    Effects of self-explanation in an open-ended domain

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    Self-explanation is used in several intelligent tutoring systems in the domains of Mathematics and Physics to facilitate deep learning. Since these domains are well structured, instructional material to self-explain can be clearly defined. We are interested in investigating whether self-explanation can be used in an open-ended domain. For this purpose, we enhanced KERMIT, an intelligent tutoring system that teaches conceptual database design. The resulting system, KERMIT-SE, supports self-explanation by engaging students in tutorial dialogues when their solutions are erroneous. An evaluation study was conducted in July 2002, to investigate whether students will learn better when self-explaining. The results indicate that self-explanation leads to improved performance in both conceptual and procedural knowledge

    Continuous radial flow chromatography of proteins

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    A continuous radial flow chromatography (CRFC) system consisting of an annular packed bed between two rotating concentric porous stainless steel cylinders was constructed and tested. The protein feed, wash buffer and elution buffer are applied simultaneously at different fixed angular positions at the periphery of the rotating bed and flow radially inwards. The target protein is bound in the feed zone and eluted in the elution zone while unbound protein flows through the feed zone. Continuity equations for fixed bed radial flow chromatography were extended to model the CRFC by including angular displacement terms, and solved using finite difference methods. Film diffusion at the resin particle boundary and pore diffusion within the resin particle was described by an overall mass transfer coefficient and a multicomponent Langmuir isotherm was used to describe protein absorption onto the resin particle. To verify the model, a solution containing 0.53 mg ml21 lactoferrin and 1.6 mg ml21 bovine serum albumin (BSA) was applied at 5 ml min21 to a 220-ml CRFC system packed with DEAE Sepharose Fast Flow ion exchange resin, with abed speed of 0.02 rpm. The proteins were separated into lactoferrin of 68% purity (74% recovery) and BSA of 94%purity (85% recovery). Experimental data were used to find values for the parameters in the model proposed

    Carbon revenues and economic breeding objectives in Eucalyptus globulus pulpwood plantations

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    This paper investigates the integration of carbon revenues into production system models used to define economic breeding objectives for the genetic improvement of Eucalyptus globulus pulp-wood plantations. A model was used to estimate that carbon dioxide equivalent accumulation in biomass in the Australian Eucalyptus globulus plantation estate established between 2004 and 2012 was in the order of ~146 t CO₂e ha⁻¹, of which 62 t CO₂e ha⁻¹ were tradable in 2012 and a further 30 t CO₂e ha⁻¹ were tradable in 2016. By considering a system where revenues for carbon sequestration are directly dependant upon biomass production in a plantation, it was possible to determine whether economic breeding objectives for the genetic improvement of E. globulus will be sensitive to the revenue from carbon sequestration. The correlated response of breeding objectives with and without carbon ( ΔcGH₁ ) never fell below 0.86 in sensitivity analysis, and the mean was 0.93. As such, where economic breeding objectives for the genetic improvement of Eucalyptus globulus for pulpwood plantations are based on maximizing NPV by increasing biomass production, the consideration of carbon in economic breeding objectives will provide no significant gains in NPV
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