259 research outputs found

    Impact of capital structure on profitability in the manufacturing and non-manufacturing industries of Pakistan

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    This study motives to analyze and understand the association between capital structure and profitability and the fastidious to measure their significance in manufacturing and non manufacturing industries of Pakistan. The paper adopts a quantitative data of different manufacturing and non manufacturing organizations in Pakistan. The financial statements were analyzed of manufacturing and non manufacturing organizations of Pakistan for the period of 2008-2013. The study reveals the fact, profitability and debt in manufacturing and non manufacturing industry is an insignificant relationship and a strong positive link between profitability and debt. The population of the study is a Manufacturing and Non-Manufacturing industry of Pakistan and units of analysis is D.G Cement factory and AGTL from Manufacturing industry and, HBL & Bank Al-Falah from Non-Manufacturing industry. In this paper descriptive statistics were used to interpret the data. It is proved that manufacturing industry has found a strong negative regression between debts and profit and the non-manufacturing has found a strong positive regression between debt and profit

    Exploring the Leadership Terrain: Reflections from Literature

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    This paper appraises the available literature on concept of leadership and proposes fresh imputes to the mainstream theory by highlighting five facets of leadership. First, leadership and management are interlinked yet distinctive set of knowledge and practice–which are not substitution to each other. Second, leadership gets instigated with making of leader’s self and its solicitation of authenticity by the followers. Third, an intimate relationship between leader and followers is deemed necessary for embarking on motivation and inspiration among followers to pursue established goals, even if they apparently seem unachievable. Fourth, contemporary organization study overwhelmingly posits leadership as individualistic domain, and thus fails to spot due diligence on the scope of co-leadership. Fifth, whilst talking high of leadership, we must not overlook the potential drawbacks that leadership might augment, because–like all other power corridors–leadership does have this tendency of fostering personal and sometimes ill-conceived agendas

    Single-trial extraction of event-related potentials (ERPs) and classification of visual stimuli by ensemble use of discrete wavelet transform with Huffman coding and machine learning techniques

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    BackgroundPresentation of visual stimuli can induce changes in EEG signals that are typically detectable by averaging together data from multiple trials for individual participant analysis as well as for groups or conditions analysis of multiple participants. This study proposes a new method based on the discrete wavelet transform with Huffman coding and machine learning for single-trial analysis of evenal (ERPs) and classification of different visual events in the visual object detection task.MethodsEEG single trials are decomposed with discrete wavelet transform (DWT) up to the level of decomposition using a biorthogonal B-spline wavelet. The coefficients of DWT in each trial are thresholded to discard sparse wavelet coefficients, while the quality of the signal is well maintained. The remaining optimum coefficients in each trial are encoded into bitstreams using Huffman coding, and the codewords are represented as a feature of the ERP signal. The performance of this method is tested with real visual ERPs of sixty-eight subjects.ResultsThe proposed method significantly discards the spontaneous EEG activity, extracts the single-trial visual ERPs, represents the ERP waveform into a compact bitstream as a feature, and achieves promising results in classifying the visual objects with classification performance metrics: accuracies 93.60, sensitivities 93.55, specificities 94.85, precisions 92.50, and area under the curve (AUC) 0.93 using SVM and k-NN machine learning classifiers.ConclusionThe proposed method suggests that the joint use of discrete wavelet transform (DWT) with Huffman coding has the potential to efficiently extract ERPs from background EEG for studying evoked responses in single-trial ERPs and classifying visual stimuli. The proposed approach has O(N) time complexity and could be implemented in real-time systems, such as the brain-computer interface (BCI), where fast detection of mental events is desired to smoothly operate a machine with minds

    Global Image of Pakistan: Significance of Public Diplomacy

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    This paper is an attempt to examine how is soft power and public diplomacy imperative conditions for Pakistan‟s international stature by examining the effective utilization of public diplomacy of the states like USA, Russia, China and India, public diplomacy of which have got a very significant position at the international stage. Based on an understanding of their Public diplomacy, the author seeks to explore what lessons and strategies should Pakistan take into consideration for the promotion of Pakistan‟s good image at the international front, and how Pakistan can be successful in achieving the positive results. The author has highlighted some serious recommendations as well

    Reviving Pak-Russia Relations: Implications for CPEC

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    Moscow and Islamabad have experienced many ups and downs throughout the past, but recent Russia Pakistan military and economic cooperation can be comprehended as significant progress in their relationship. As CPEC is a signatory sign of the Sino-Pak relationship, this paper seeks to analyze the need for Russia to be a part of CPEC as its inclusion in the project will also be significant for the regional integration and it will, even more, strengthen the relations of Beijing, Islamabad, and Moscow that will eventually build a new bloc. In addition, by giving the theoretical framework of complex interdependence theory, how Russia and Pakistan can work together in this project. Also, if Russia becomes a part of CPEC, how it can be helpful to eradicate all the apprehension which have been imposed by different entities to defame this project

    BRI & CPEC: Strategic & Economic Depth for Pakistan

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    CPEC project (China – Pakistan Economic Corridor) being the flagship project of Belt & Road Initiative initially witnessed a planned investment of 46.6billionwhichBeijingintitatedandnowitisextendedto 46.6 billion which Beijing intitated and now it is extended to 62 billion and would be completed in the next few years. CPEC is not only aimed at connecting Kashgar to Gwadar but it is also considered to be the Zipper of Central Asia with South Asia, Moscow and Beijing with the Middle East and Africa. CPEC is specifically envisioned beneficial for economic security for Pakistan in a crucial time when Pakistan is isolated and badly damaged by the War on Terror since September 2001. Islamabad and Beijing have developed strong ties despite their ideological differences. This research work sheds light on the economic cooperation between the two neighboring states i.e. China and Pakistan in the context of Beijing's huge investment in Pakistan. The study analyzes CPEC from political, economic, and social perspectives. The study reveals that CPEC is the venture of economic and strategic depth for Pakistan

    On the asymmetric effects of financial deepening on renewable and non-renewable energy consumption: insights from China

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    One of the strategic objectives of China is to increase renewable energy consumption by reducing non-renewable energy consumption. This motivates us to carefully investigate the asymmetric effects of financial deepening on renewable and non-renewable energy consumption for China, using annual data from 1990 to 2019. The results show that in China, a positive shock in bank deposits and broad money has a significant increasing effect on renewable energy consumption, while a negative shock in bank deposits and broad money has also a significant increasing effect on renewable energy consumption in the long-run. Moreover, positive change in bank deposits and broad money has an inverse impact on non-renewable energy consumption, while negative change has stimulating non-renewable energy consumption in long run. Thus, government and policymaker’s policies aimed at promoting financial deepening in China must be persistent and sustainable to foster renewable energy consumption

    Structural and spectroscopic analysis of wurtzite (ZnO)1−x(Sb2O3)x composite semiconductor

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    Abstract The structural, vibrational and impedance analysis for (ZnO) 1− x (Sb 2 O 3 ) x composite synthesized by solid state reaction technique were carried out in the present investigation. X-ray diffraction (XRD) study showed that (ZnO) 1− x (Sb 2 O 3 ) x composite has hexagonal (wurtzite) crystal structure. Variation in lattice constants with Sb-doping indicated the proper incorporation of Sb dopant in ZnO host matrix. The results of Raman spectroscopy test suggested the signature of E 2 (high) and E 1 (TO) Raman modes, and verified the wurtzite structure of (ZnO) 1− x (Sb 2 O 3 ) x composite. Two additional phonon bands (671, 712) cm −1 appeared in Raman spectra of composite samples due to the existence of the lattice defects caused by Sb doping or may be other intrinsic lattice defects formed during the synthesis of (ZnO) 1− x (Sb 2 O 3 ) x composite. The frequency dependent on the electrical characteristics, such as, impedance ( Z ), dielectric constant ( e ) and AC conductivity ( σ ) have been studied in a range of frequencies for different Sb concentration at room temperature. The electrical measurement results showed that the impedance increased with Sb dopant concentration, while dielectric constant and AC conductivity decreased with Sb dopant concentration

    The Effect of Market and Entrepreneurial Orientation on Firm Performance

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    Market orientation (MO) and Entrepreneurial orientation (EO) have gained the importance in today’s world. Now these two are considered the main sources in the increase of firm performance. A corelation analysis is performed to understand and determine whether the market orientation and entrepreneurial orientation is associated with the firm performance. The Past studies did not analyze the effect of MO and EO on the firm performance. The research design and methodology adopted is given together with the findings leading to the conclusions related to propositions concerning the variables. The data is collected from various reputed universities that are giving the business education. Entrepreneurial orientation and market orientation provides the basic knowledge about the organizational learning that enables the organization to achieve the high performance and to understand the values of customers (Liu et al, 2002). The paper draws on survey data from 100 students including male and female students. The results show that EO and MO are strongly co-related with dependent variable. However, a few recommendations and future research is also given
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