2,252 research outputs found

    Single top production and decay at next-to-leading order

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    We present the results of a next-to-leading order analysis of single top production including the decay of the top quark. Radiative effects are included both in the production and decay stages, using a general subtraction method. This calculation gives a good treatment of the jet activity associated with single top production. We perform an analysis of the single top search at the Tevatron, including a consideration of the main backgrounds, many of which are also calculated at next-to-leading order.Comment: 35 pages + 15 figures, revtex

    Effect of affective priming on prosocial orientation through mobile application: Differences between digital immigrants and natives

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    Digital revolution has drastically changed people’s lives in the last three decades inspiring scholars to deepen the role of technologies in thinking and information processing (Baranyi et al., 2015). Prensky (2001) has developed the notion of digital generation, differentiating between natives and immigrants. Digital natives are characterised by their highly automatic and quick response in hyper-textual environment. Digital immigrants are characterised by their main focus on textual elements and a greater proneness to reflection. The main goal of the present research is to investigate the effect of affective priming on prosocial orientation in natives and immigrants by using a mobile application. A quasi-experimental study has been conducted to test whether and how the manipulation of the priming, through positively and negatively connoted images, influences prosocial orientation. The results attested that negative affective priming elicited by app influences negatively prosocial orientation, while positive affective priming influences it positively prosocial orientation. However, this effect is true mainly for digital natives. Overall, findings underline the relevance of taking into account the effects of affective priming in technological environment, especially in the case of digital natives

    Retrotransposons as drivers of Mammalian brain evolution

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    Retrotransposons, a large and diverse class of transposable elements that are still active in humans, represent a remarkable force of genomic innovation underlying mammalian evolution. Among the features distinguishing mammals from all other vertebrates, the presence of a neocor-tex with a peculiar neuronal organization, composition and connectivity is perhaps the one that, by affecting the cognitive abilities of mammals, contributed mostly to their evolutionary success. Among mammals, hominids and especially humans display an extraordinarily expanded cortical volume, an enrichment of the repertoire of neural cell types and more elaborate patterns of neuronal connectivity. Retrotransposon-derived sequences have recently been implicated in multiple layers of gene regulation in the brain, from transcriptional and post-transcriptional control to both local and large-scale three-dimensional chromatin organization. Accordingly, an increasing variety of neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative conditions are being recognized to be associated with retrotransposon dysregulation. We review here a large body of recent studies lending support to the idea that retrotransposon-dependent evolutionary novelties were crucial for the emergence of mammalian, primate and human peculiarities of brain morphology and function

    Self-efficacy configurations and wellbeing in the academic context: A person-centred approach

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    The aim of the present study was to identify self-efficacy configurations in different domains (i.e., emotional, social, and self-regulated learning) in a sample of university students using a person-centred approach. Results from a two-cohort sample (N = 1650) assessed at the beginning of their first year supported a 4-cluster solution: 1) Highly Self-Efficacious students, with high levels of self-efficacy in all domains; 2) Low Self-Efficacious students, with low levels of self-efficacy in all domains; 3) Learning and Socially Self-Efficacious students, with a medium-high level of self-regulated learning, medium level of social, and medium-low level of emotional self-efficacies; and 4) Emotionally Self-Efficacious students, with a medium-high level of emotional, medium-low level of social, and low level of self-regulated learning self-efficacies. The association of these configurations with wellbeing indicators, concurrently and one year later, provides support for the validity of the cluster solution. Specifically, by adopting the informative hypothesis testing approach, results showed that the first and second groups have the best and the worst wellbeing levels, respectively. Furthermore, whereas the other two groups did not differ with respect to depression, Learning and Socially Self-Efficacious students have higher life satisfaction than the last group. These results were confirmed both concurrently and over time

    Circulating Endothelial Microparticles in Diabetes Mellitus

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    Background. Endothelial Microparticles (EMPs) are small vesicles shed from activated or apoptotic endothelial cells and involved in cellular cross-talk. Whether EMP immunophenotypes vary according to stimulus in Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is not known. We studied the cellular adhesion molecule (CAM) profile of circulating EMPs in patients with and without Diabetes Mellitus type 2, who were undergoing elective cardiac catheterization. Methods and Results. EMPs were analyzed by flow cytometry. The absolute median number of EMPs (EMPs/μL) specific for CD31, CD105, and CD106 was significantly increased in the DM population. The ratio of CD62E/CD31 EMP populations reflected an apoptotic process. Conclusion. Circulating CD31+, CD105+, and CD106+ EMPs were significantly elevated in patients with DM. EMPs were the only independent predictors of DM in our study cohort. In addition, the EMP immunophenotype reflected an apoptotic process. Circulating EMPs may provide new options for risk assessment

    The implicit component of moral disengagement: applying the relational responding task to investigate its relationship with cheating behavior

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    This article aims to conceptualize, for the first time, an implicit form of moral disengagement and investigate its role in relation to cheating behavior. In line with the implicit social-cognition models, we argue that the implicit moral disengagement would represent an unintentional, automatic, and less accessible form of the mechanisms bypassing the moral self-regulatory system. We anticipate that in situations implying on-the-spot decisions and where individuals might suffer no consequences for the misconduct, the implicit moral disengagement would predict the actual behavior while the explicit moral disengagement would predict self-reported conduct. The results of three empirical studies provide support for the theorization of an implicit moral disengagement and its assessment through a newly developed implicit measurement procedure using the relational responding task. Results of the structural equation models, including both implicit and explicit moral disengagement, demonstrated that only the implicit one was associated with the actual misconduct

    'First, do no harm': the role of negative emotions and moral disengagement in understanding the relationship between workplace aggression and misbehavior

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    Workplace aggression is a critical phenomenon particularly in the healthcare sector, where nurses are especially at risk of bullying and third-party aggression. While workplace aggression has been frequently examined in relation to health problems, less is known about the possible negative impact such aggression may have on the (un)ethical behavior of victims. Our research aims to fill this gap. Drawing on literature on counterproductive work behavior (CWB) and the social-cognitive literature on aggression we investigated in two independent studies (NStudy1 = 439; NStudy2 = 416), the role of negative emotions - in particular anger, fear, and sadness, - and of moral disengagement (MD) in the paths between workplace aggression, CWB and health symptoms. The focus on these relationships is rooted in two reasons. First, misbehavior at work is a pervasive phenomenon worldwide and second, little research has been conducted in the healthcare sector on this type of behavior despite the potential importance of the issue in this context. We empirically tested our hypotheses considering a specific form of workplace aggression in each study: workplace bullying or third-party aggression. Results from the two empirical studies confirm the hypotheses that being target of workplace aggression (bullying or third-party aggression) is not only associated with health symptoms but also with misbehavior. In addition, the results of structural equation modeling attest the importance of examining specific discrete negative emotions and MD for better understanding misbehavior at work. In particular, this research shows for the first time that anger, fear, and sadness, generally aggregated into a single dimension, are indeed differently associated with MD, misbehavior and health symptoms. Specifically, in line with the literature on discrete emotions, while sadness is only associated with health symptoms, anger and fear are related to both health and misbehavior

    NLO predictions for t-channel production of single top and fourth generation quarks at hadron colliders

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    We present updated NLO predictions for the electroweak t-channel production of heavy quarks at the Tevatron and at the LHC. We consider production of single top and fourth generation t' starting from both 2 to 2 and 2 to 3 Born processes. Predictions for tb' and t'b' cross sections at NLO are also given for the first time. A thorough study of the theoretical uncertainties coming from parton distribution functions, renormalisation and factorisation scale dependence and heavy quark masses is performed.Comment: 25 pages, 8 figure

    To dd, or not to dd: Recent developments and comparisons of regularization schemes

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    We give an introduction to several regularization schemes that deal with ultraviolet and infrared singularities appearing in higher-order computations in quantum field theories. Comparing the computation of simple quantities in the various schemes, we point out similarities and differences between them.Comment: 61 pages, 12 figures; version sent to EPJC, references update
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