534 research outputs found

    New devices in glaucoma

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    Glaucoma remains a leading cause of blindness globally. Minimally invasive treatment techniques are rapidly expanding the availability of therapeutic options for glaucoma. These include devices aimed at enhancing outflow through the subconjunctival space, Schlemm\u27s canal, and suprachoroidal space, sustained-release drug delivery devices, and extraocular devices aiming to reduce glaucomatous progression through other novel means. In this review, we provide an overview of several novel devices either newly available or in development for the medical and surgical management of glaucoma. Further studies are required to determine the long-term efficacy of these devices and how they will integrate into the current landscape of glaucoma management

    Markers of Bone Mineral Metabolism and Cardiac Structure and Function in Perinatally HIV-Infected and HIV-Exposed but Uninfected Children and Adolescents

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    Background: Disordered bone mineral metabolism and low vitamin D concentrations are associated with cardiovascular abnormalities; few studies have evaluated this relationship in HIV-infected youth. Setting: Adolescent Master Protocol (AMP) is a Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study (PHACS) network study conducted across 14 United States sites. Methods: Among perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) and HIV-exposed uninfected (PHEU) youth enrolled in AMP, we evaluated associations of vitamin D (measured as 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25OHD]), parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium, phosphate, and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) concentrations with echocardiographic measures of left ventricular (LV) structure, function and concentrations of NT-proBNP, a biomarker of cardiac damage. Results: Among 485 participants (305 PHIV, 180 PHEU) with echocardiograms and bone mineralization measures, low 25OHD ( 65 pg/mL) was identified more often among PHIV than PHEU participants (9% vs 3%, p=0.02). After adjusting for HIV status and demographic covariates, both low 25OHD and elevated PTH were associated with lower mean LV mass z-scores, while elevated PTH was associated with higher mean fractional shortening z-scores. Participants with low 25OHD also had slightly higher mean LV end-systolic wall stress z-scores, but differences were more pronounced in PHEU than in PHIV participants. FGF-23 was inversely related to end-diastolic septal thickness both overall and among PHIV participants. Conclusion: In this cohort of PHIV and PHEU youth, we observed associations of 25OHD, PTH, and FGF-23 with both structural and functional cardiac parameters, supporting links between bone mineral metabolism and cardiac status

    Microwave Spectroscopy of Thermally Excited Quasiparticles in YBa_2Cu_3O_{6.99}

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    We present here the microwave surface impedance of a high purity crystal of YBa2Cu3O6.99YBa_2Cu_3O_{6.99} measured at 5 frequencies between 1 and 75 GHz. This data set reveals the main features of the conductivity spectrum of the thermally excited quasiparticles in the superconducting state. Below 20 K there is a regime of extremely long quasiparticle lifetimes, due to both the collapse of inelastic scattering below TcT_c and the very weak impurity scattering in the high purity BaZrO3BaZrO_3-grown crystal used in this study. Above 20 K, the scattering increases dramatically, initially at least as fast as T4T^4.Comment: 13 pages with 10 figures. submitted to Phys Rev

    Induced pseudoscalar coupling of the proton weak interaction

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    The induced pseudoscalar coupling gpg_p is the least well known of the weak coupling constants of the proton's charged--current interaction. Its size is dictated by chiral symmetry arguments, and its measurement represents an important test of quantum chromodynamics at low energies. During the past decade a large body of new data relevant to the coupling gpg_p has been accumulated. This data includes measurements of radiative and non radiative muon capture on targets ranging from hydrogen and few--nucleon systems to complex nuclei. Herein the authors review the theoretical underpinnings of gpg_p, the experimental studies of gpg_p, and the procedures and uncertainties in extracting the coupling from data. Current puzzles are highlighted and future opportunities are discussed.Comment: 58 pages, Latex, Revtex4, prepared for Reviews of Modern Physic

    Human Herpesvirus Replication and Abnormal CD8+ T Cell Activation and Low CD4+ T Cell Counts in Antiretroviral-Suppressed HIV-Infected Patients

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    Most HIV-infected patients receiving virologically suppressive antiretroviral therapy continue to have abnormal, generalized T cell activation. We explored whether the degree of ongoing cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) replication was associated with higher virus-specific T cell activation and the failure to achieve normal absolute CD4+ T cell counts in the face of long-term suppressive antiretroviral therapy.Longitudinally collected PBMC and saliva specimens obtained from HIV-infected patients on effective antiretroviral therapy for at least one year (plasma HIV RNA <75 copies/mL) were examined using a multiplex CMV, EBV and KSHV DNA PCR assay. Eleven cases were chosen who had CD8+ T cell CD38+HLA-DR+ expression >10% and plateau absolute CD4+ T cell counts <500 cells/microL. Five controls from the same study had CD8+ T cell CD38 expression <10% and plateau absolute CD4+ T cell counts >500 cells/microL.Among all subjects combined, 18% of PMBC samples were positive for CMV DNA, and 27%, 73% and 24% of saliva samples were positive for CMV, EBV and KSHV DNA, respectively. No significant differences or trends were observed between cases and controls in proportions of all CMV, EBV or KSHV DNA positive specimens, proportions of subjects in each group that intermittently or continuously shed CMV, EBV or KSHV DNA in saliva, or the median number of genome copies of CMV, EBV and KSHV DNA in saliva. Overall, number of genome copies in saliva were lower for KSHV than for CMV and lower for CMV than for EBV. Although replication of CMV, EBV and KSHV persists in many antiretroviral-suppressed, HIV-infected patients, we observed no evidence in this pilot case-control study that the magnitude of such human herpesvirus replication is associated with abnormally increased CD8+ T cell activation and sub-normal plateau absolute CD4+ T cell counts following virologically suppressive antiretroviral therapy

    Spatial Organization and Molecular Correlation of Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes Using Deep Learning on Pathology Images

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    Beyond sample curation and basic pathologic characterization, the digitized H&E-stained images of TCGA samples remain underutilized. To highlight this resource, we present mappings of tumorinfiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) based on H&E images from 13 TCGA tumor types. These TIL maps are derived through computational staining using a convolutional neural network trained to classify patches of images. Affinity propagation revealed local spatial structure in TIL patterns and correlation with overall survival. TIL map structural patterns were grouped using standard histopathological parameters. These patterns are enriched in particular T cell subpopulations derived from molecular measures. TIL densities and spatial structure were differentially enriched among tumor types, immune subtypes, and tumor molecular subtypes, implying that spatial infiltrate state could reflect particular tumor cell aberration states. Obtaining spatial lymphocytic patterns linked to the rich genomic characterization of TCGA samples demonstrates one use for the TCGA image archives with insights into the tumor-immune microenvironment
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