18,548 research outputs found

    Surface roughness and interfacial slip boundary condition for quartz crystal microbalances

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    The response of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is considered using a wave equation for the substrate and the Navier-Stokes equations for a finite liquid layer under a slip boundary condition. It is shown that when the slip length to shear wave penetration depth is small, the first order effect of slip is only present in the frequency response. Importantly, in this approximation the frequency response satisfies an additivity relation with a net response equal to a Kanazawa liquid term plus an additional Sauerbrey "rigid" liquid mass. For the slip length to result in an enhanced frequency decrease compared to a no-slip boundary condition, it is shown that the slip length must be negative so that the slip plane is located on the liquid side of the interface. It is argued that the physical application of such a negative slip length could be to the liquid phase response of a QCM with a completely wetted rough surface. Effectively, the model recovers the starting assumption of additivity used in the trapped mass model for the liquid phase response of a QCM having a rough surface. When applying the slip boundary condition to the rough surface problem, slip is not at a molecular level, but is a formal hydrodynamic boundary condition which relates the response of the QCM to that expected from a QCM with a smooth surface. Finally, possible interpretations of the results in terms of acoustic reflectivity are developed and the potential limitations of the additivity result should vapour trapping occur are discussed

    Quantum privacy and quantum coherence

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    We derive a simple relation between a quantum channel's capacity to convey coherent (quantum) information and its usefulness for quantum cryptography.Comment: 6 pages RevTex; two short comments added 7 October 199

    Information transmission through a noisy quantum channel

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    Noisy quantum channels may be used in many information-carrying applications. We show that different applications may result in different channel capacities. Upper bounds on several of these capacities are proved. These bounds are based on the coherent information, which plays a role in quantum information theory analogous to that played by the mutual information in classical information theory. Many new properties of the coherent information and entanglement fidelity are proved. Two nonclassical features of the coherent information are demonstrated: the failure of subadditivity, and the failure of the pipelining inequality. Both properties arise as a consequence of quantum entanglement, and give quantum information new features not found in classical information theory. The problem of a noisy quantum channel with a classical observer measuring the environment is introduced, and bounds on the corresponding channel capacity proved. These bounds are always greater than for the unobserved channel. We conclude with a summary of open problems
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