2,745 research outputs found

    Health Risk Factors And Health Care Systems In Latin America And The Caribbean: A Cross-Sectional Multiple Regression And ANOVA Analysis

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    The purpose of this research is to examine the effect of health risk factors and health care systems on child mortality and life expectancy in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Cross-sectional multiple regression and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) are used to study the association between health risk factors such as incidence of tuberculosis and diabetes, and health care systems such as number of hospital beds per capita, and number of physicians per capita on life expectancy and child mortality. Data are obtained from the World Bank. For the purpose of this study, the LAC region is defined as the area from Mexico to the southern end of South America, as well as islands in the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico. The conclusions of the study are that higher life expectancy is associated with higher per capita incomes and health expenditures. On the other hand, higher child mortality is associated with greater prevalence of communicable diseases and poor maternal pre-natal conditions. The macro policy implication is to focus on economic development and health care expenditure. The micro policy implication is to allocate more resources for maternal care, preventive care and eradication of communicable diseases.

    Reflections on water: architectural manifestations in the historic and cultural quarter along Lake Pichola in Udaipur

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    The aim of this paper is to undertake a critical appreciation of the historic cultural quarter along the eastern edge of Lake Pichola in Udaipur, which is a result of its unique context with the objective of understanding the forces that underpin this development, examine its existing state, and highlight key concerns. The main issues that were highlighted include preservation of existing traditions, conservation and adaptive reuse of historic structures, sensitive and participatory planning and design, formalising of street activities, provision of infrastructure, and administrative structures to deliver the project, and organisation of awareness programs for the local community. The aim of this study is to develop a critical appreciation of the historic core and cultural quarter along the eastern edge of Lake Pichola in Udaipur, which is a result of its unique climatic, social, and topographical context, to chart the changes to this context, to draw attention to past patterns of growth. The objective is also to understand the forces that have influenced and underpin this development, examine its existing state and highlight key concerns. The study is limited to the historic core along the waterfront and its related structures along the eastern bank of Lake Pichola in Udaipur. The study demonstrated that the historic core along the lake front is a result of evolution that has been guided by dominant determinants such as its socio-economic hierarchy/structure, political, cultural, and religious factors, climate, availability of materials and technology. The overall form, settlement pattern and the massing of buildings in Udaipur are dominated by its physical attributes and in consonance with the topography and landscape, and ordered by the generative force of its land form and the lake. It is, however, subject to severe developmental and environmental pressures as a result of intense tourism related and commercial activities, unwarranted and haphazard building activities, continuous neglect of residential properties, some of the historic fabric and surviving artefacts, and poor infrastructure. If this trend were to continue, the problems will intensify manifold causing serious threat to this valuable environment, its urban spaces and exquisite edifices. Preservation of this waterfront, which plays a decisive role in solving critical urban, social and economic problems in this city, is vital. The main issues identified for consideration in this context were preservation of existing traditions, conservation of historic structures and adaptive reuse of buildings, sensitive and participatory planning and design, formalising of street activities, provision of infrastructure and administrative structures to deliver the project, and creation of awareness and understanding amongst the local communit

    Flow prediction for propfan engine installation effects on transport aircraft at transonic speeds

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    An Euler-based method for aerodynamic analysis of turboprop transport aircraft at transonic speeds has been developed. In this method, inviscid Euler equations are solved over surface-fitted grids constructed about aircraft configurations. Propeller effects are simulated by specifying sources of momentum and energy on an actuator disc located in place of the propeller. A stripwise boundary layer procedure is included to account for the viscous effects. A preliminary version of an approach to embed the exhaust plume within the global Euler solution has also been developed for more accurate treatment of the exhaust flow. The resulting system of programs is capable of handling wing-body-nacelle-propeller configurations. The propeller disks may be tractors or pushers and may represent single or counterrotation propellers. Results from analyses of three test cases of interest (a wing alone, a wing-body-nacelle model, and a wing-nacelle-endplate model) are presented. A user's manual for executing the system of computer programs with formats of various input files, sample job decks, and sample input files is provided in appendices


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    Penetration testing is used to search for vulnerabilities that might exist in a system. The testing usually involves simulating different types of attacks on the target system. This type of testing provides an organized and controlled way to identify security shortcomings. The resources and time required for comprehensive testing can make penetration testing cost intensive. Consequently, such tests are usually only performed during important milestones.In this project we have automated the penetration testing process for several protocol-based attacks. Our automated penetration testing application covers several attacks based on HTTP, SIP and TCP/IP. The objective of this work is to offer a fast, reliable and automated testing tool, which is also easier to use than existing tools

    Free Riding, Altruism, and Cooperation on Peer-to-Peer File-Sharing Networks

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    Researchers have acknowledged the existence of free-riding in peer-to-peer networks. Krishnan et al. (2002a) provide a plausible game theoretic explanation for the sustenance of cooperation in P2P networks and their ability to tolerate free-riding. Our paper investigates this issue further using a computational model. We find the Krishnan et al. (2002a) model to hold true only for a restricted set of assumptions. We argue that, in general, aggregation of individuals’ utility is necessary to explain the ability of P2P systems to tolerate free- riders. From our experiments we observe that the stability of the network is sensitive to the underlying incentive structure of individual users. We suggest a detailed incentive structure for users participating on the P2P network and examine this incentive structure in light of existing data of P2P usage. The findings of this paper should be useful to researchers and practitioners for policy making, network design, regulating growth, and deploying novel business models on P2P file sharing networks

    An Experimental Investigation in Hard Turning of AISI 4140 Steel

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    There is a growing demand for new and special alloys like nickel alloys, chrome- molybdenum alloys due to their special properties like high strength, light weight, and corrosive resistance. The present work is based on the experimental investigation of chrome-molybdenum alloy to study the effect of process parameters like cutting velocity, feed, and depth of cut on the output responses like force, surface roughness, tool wear. A full factorial design with 33 lay out with total 27 numbers of runs were carried out and optimum cutting condition for all three output responses was found out using grey relational analysis method. White layer formed in a hard turned component is mainly influenced by the abrasive wear of the tool. It has immense response on the performance of product so it is necessary to find out the white layer thickness. To investigate the machined surface properties like white layer and micro-hardness, the sliced machined surface was observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM) and micro-hardness tester respectively. It has been found that the as speed increases, the thickness of white layer increases due to increase in flank wear. Finally, a thermo-mechanical 2D model using finite element method available in Deform 2D TM has been prepared to investigate the output responses like force. Further, the model has been validated comparing the results of simulation with the measured results