4,832 research outputs found

    One-particle irreducible functional approach - a new route to diagrammatic extensions of DMFT

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    We present an approach which is based on the one-particle irreducible (1PI) generating functional formalism and includes electronic correlations on all length-scales beyond the local correlations of dynamical mean field theory (DMFT). This formalism allows us to unify aspects of the dynamical vertex approximation (D\GammaA) and the dual fermion (DF) scheme, yielding a consistent formulation of non-local correlations at the one- and two-particle level beyond DMFT within the functional integral formalism. In particular, the considered approach includes one-particle reducible contributions from the three- and more-particle vertices in the dual fermion approach, as well as some diagrams not included in the ladder version of D\GammaA. To demonstrate the applicability and physical content of the 1PI approach, we compare the diagrammatics of 1PI, DF and D\GammaA, as well as the numerical results of these approaches for the half-filled Hubbard model in two dimensions.Comment: 36 pages, 12 figures, updated versio

    Diagrammatic routes to nonlocal correlations beyond dynamical mean field theory

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    Strong electronic correlations pose one of the biggest challenges to solid state theory. We review recently developed methods that address this problem by starting with the local, eminently important correlations of dynamical mean field theory (DMFT). On top of this, non-local correlations on all length scales are generated through Feynman diagrams, with a local two-particle vertex instead of the bare Coulomb interaction as a building block. With these diagrammatic extensions of DMFT long-range charge-, magnetic-, and superconducting fluctuations as well as (quantum) criticality can be addressed in strongly correlated electron systems. We provide an overview of the successes and results achieved---hitherto mainly for model Hamiltonians---and outline future prospects for realistic material calculations.Comment: 60 pages, 42 figures, replaced by the version to be published in Rev. Mod. Phys. 201

    Roadmap of ultrafast x-ray atomic and molecular physics

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    X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) and table-top sources of x-rays based upon high harmonic generation (HHG) have revolutionized the field of ultrafast x-ray atomic and molecular physics, largely due to an explosive growth in capabilities in the past decade. XFELs now provide unprecedented intensity (1020 W cm−2) of x-rays at wavelengths down to ~1 Ångstrom, and HHG provides unprecedented time resolution (~50 attoseconds) and a correspondingly large coherent bandwidth at longer wavelengths. For context, timescales can be referenced to the Bohr orbital period in hydrogen atom of 150 attoseconds and the hydrogen-molecule vibrational period of 8 femtoseconds; wavelength scales can be referenced to the chemically significant carbon K-edge at a photon energy of ~280 eV (44 Ångstroms) and the bond length in methane of ~1 Ångstrom. With these modern x-ray sources one now has the ability to focus on individual atoms, even when embedded in a complex molecule, and view electronic and nuclear motion on their intrinsic scales (attoseconds and Ångstroms). These sources have enabled coherent diffractive imaging, where one can image non-crystalline objects in three dimensions on ultrafast timescales, potentially with atomic resolution. The unprecedented intensity available with XFELs has opened new fields of multiphoton and nonlinear x-ray physics where behavior of matter under extreme conditions can be explored. The unprecedented time resolution and pulse synchronization provided by HHG sources has kindled fundamental investigations of time delays in photoionization, charge migration in molecules, and dynamics near conical intersections that are foundational to AMO physics and chemistry. This roadmap coincides with the year when three new XFEL facilities, operating at Ångstrom wavelengths, opened for users (European XFEL, Swiss-FEL and PAL-FEL in Korea) almost doubling the present worldwide number of XFELs, and documents the remarkable progress in HHG capabilities since its discovery roughly 30 years ago, showcasing experiments in AMO physics and other applications. Here we capture the perspectives of 17 leading groups and organize the contributions into four categories: ultrafast molecular dynamics, multidimensional x-ray spectroscopies; high-intensity x-ray phenomena; attosecond x-ray science

    Stochastic optimization of a cold atom experiment using a genetic algorithm

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    We employ an evolutionary algorithm to automatically optimize different stages of a cold atom experiment without human intervention. This approach closes the loop between computer based experimental control systems and automatic real time analysis and can be applied to a wide range of experimental situations. The genetic algorithm quickly and reliably converges to the most performing parameter set independent of the starting population. Especially in many-dimensional or connected parameter spaces the automatic optimization outperforms a manual search.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figure