98 research outputs found

    Anterior prostatic tumours are difficult to diagnose without MRI

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    It is often uncertain whether a repeat biopsy is necessary in patients with at least one previous negative prostate biopsy but persistent suspicion of prostate cancer. Here we present the use of multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) to successfully detect and localize a prostate cancer and we suggest that MRI can be useful in optimising repeat biopsy procedures of the prostate in patients with clinically significant carcinoma

    Towards Safer Robot-Assisted Surgery: A Markerless Augmented Reality Framework

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    Robot-assisted surgery is rapidly developing in the medical field, and the integration of augmented reality shows the potential of improving the surgeons' operation performance by providing more visual information. In this paper, we proposed a markerless augmented reality framework to enhance safety by avoiding intra-operative bleeding which is a high risk caused by the collision between the surgical instruments and the blood vessel. Advanced stereo reconstruction and segmentation networks are compared to find out the best combination to reconstruct the intra-operative blood vessel in the 3D space for the registration of the pre-operative model, and the minimum distance detection between the instruments and the blood vessel is implemented. A robot-assisted lymphadenectomy is simulated on the da Vinci Research Kit in a dry lab, and ten human subjects performed this operation to explore the usability of the proposed framework. The result shows that the augmented reality framework can help the users to avoid the dangerous collision between the instruments and the blood vessel while not introducing an extra load. It provides a flexible framework that integrates augmented reality into the medical robot platform to enhance safety during the operation

    The prognostic role of circulating tumor cells (ctc) in high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer

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    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) could represent a promising, noninvasive prognostic and predictive marker in high-risk patients with nonemuscle-invasive bladder cancer. We retrospectively evaluated 155 patients with pT1G3 bladder cancer who underwent transurethral resection of bladder tumor after a blood withdrawal for CTC evaluation. In our analysis, the presence of CTCs was significantly associated with time to first recurrence and time to progression. Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) as a prognostic marker in patients with high-risk nonemuscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and assess the efficacy and reliability of 2 different CTC isolation methods. Materials and Methods: Globally, 155 patients with a pathologically confirmed diagnosis of high-risk NMIBC were included (pT1G3 with or without carcinoma in situ) and underwent transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURB) after a blood withdrawal for CTC evaluation. A total of 101 patients (Group A) had their samples analyzed with the CellSearch automated system, and 54 (Group B) had their samples analyzed with the CELLection Dynabeads manual system. Results: Patients were followed for 28 months, and during this interval, there were a total of 65 (41.9%) recurrences, 27 (17.4%) disease progressions, and 9 (5.8%) lymph node and/or bone metastasis. In our CTC analysis, there were 20 (19.8%) positive patients in Group A and 24 in Group B (44.4%). In our analysis, we found a strong correlation between CTC presence and time to first recurrence; in Group A, we observed an incidence of recurrence in 75% of CTC-positive patients and in Group B of 83% of CTC-positive patients. The time to progression was also strongly correlated with CTCs: 65% and 29%, respectively, of those patients who progressed in those with CTCs in Group A and B. Conclusion: The study demonstrates the potential role of CTCs as a prognostic marker for risk stratification in patients with NMIBC, to predict both recurrence and progression

    Postoperative vacuum therapy following AMS™ LGX 700® inflatable penile prosthesis placement: penile dimension outcomes and overall satisfaction

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    Penile shortening after inflatable penile prosthesis for erectile dysfunction is a common postoperative patient complaint and can reduce overall satisfaction with the procedure. In this prospective study we report our results regarding penile dimensions and patient satisfaction outcomes after 1 year of follow-up from AMS™LGX700® penile prosthesis implant with 6 months of vacuum erectile device therapy. Seventy-four selected patients with medically refractory erectile dysfunction underwent AMS™ LGX 700® IPP placement. Postoperatively, patients were assigned vacuum device therapy for 5 min twice daily. Follow-up continued for 1 year after surgery. Dimensional and functional results were assessed. Baseline median preoperative stretched penile length and girth were 14 cm (range 10–17) and 9 cm (range 7–12), respectively. At the end of the study penile median dimensional outcomes were 17 cm (range 13–23) for length and 11 cm (range 10–13) for girth while a median number of 24 pumps (range 18–29) to fully inflate the device was seen. Baseline median International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) score was 9 (range 5–11), at 6 months 20 (range 18–26) and at 1 year was 25 (range 20–27) (p < 0.0001). Median Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction (EDITS) score at the end of the follow-up was 74 (range 66–78). Our postoperative rehabilitation program is feasible and should be recommended after prothesis surgery in order to increase overall satisfaction with the procedure. Penile postoperative dimensional outcomes were statistically significant improved and complications were negligible

    Molecular Imaging Diagnosis of Renal Cancer Using 99mTc-Sestamibi SPECT/CT and Girentuximab PET-CT-Current Evidence and Future Development of Novel Techniques

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    : Novel molecular imaging opportunities to preoperatively diagnose renal cell carcinoma is under development and will add more value in limiting the postoperative renal function loss and morbidity. We aimed to comprehensively review the research on single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) and positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET-CT) molecular imaging and to enhance the urologists' and radiologists' knowledge of the current research pattern. We identified an increase in prospective and also retrospective studies that researched to distinguish between benign and malignant lesions and between different clear cell renal cell carcinoma subtypes, with small numbers of patients studied, nonetheless with excellent results on specificity, sensitivity and accuracy, especially for 99mTc-sestamibi SPECT/CT that delivers quick results compared to a long acquisition time for girentuximab PET-CT, which instead gives better image quality. Nuclear medicine has helped clinicians in evaluating primary and secondary lesions, and has lately returned with new and exciting insights with novel radiotracers to reinforce its diagnostic potential in renal carcinoma. To further limit the renal function loss and post-surgery morbidity, future research is mandatory to validate the results and to clinically implement the diagnostic techniques in the context of precision medicine

    The emerging landscape of tumor marker panels for the identification of aggressive prostate cancer: the perspective through bibliometric analysis of an Italian translational working group in uro-oncology

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    Molecular heterogeneity and availability of different therapeutic strategies are relevant clinical features of prostate cancer. On this basis, there is an urgent need to identify prognostic and predictive biomarkers for an individualized therapeutic approach. In this context, researchers focused their attention on biomarkers able to discriminate potential life-threatening from organ-confined disease identify high-grade tumors. Such biomarker could provide aid in clinical decision making, helping in order to choose the treatment which ensures the best results in terms of patient survival and quality of life. To address this need, many new laboratory tests have been proposed, witha clear tendency to use panels of combined biomarkers. In this review we evaluate current data on the application in clinical practice for of the most promising laboratory tests: Phi, 4Kscore and Stockholm 3 as circulating biomarkers, and Mi-prostate score, Exo DX Prostate and Select MD-X as urinary biomarkers, Confirm MDx, Oncotype Dx, Prolaris and Decipher as tissue biomarkers. In particular, the ability of these tests in the identification of clinically significant PCa and their potential use for precision medicine have been explored in this review

    Radiomics in prostate cancer: an up-to-date review

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    : Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common worldwide diagnosed malignancy in male population. The diagnosis, the identification of aggressive disease, and the post-treatment follow-up needs a more comprehensive and holistic approach. Radiomics is the extraction and interpretation of images phenotypes in a quantitative manner. Radiomics may give an advantage through advancements in imaging modalities and through the potential power of artificial intelligence techniques by translating those features into clinical outcome prediction. This article gives an overview on the current evidence of methodology and reviews the available literature on radiomics in PCa patients, highlighting its potential for personalized treatment and future applications
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