604 research outputs found

    A Method to Obtain a Maxwell–Boltzmann Neutron Spectrum at kT = 30 keV for Nuclear Astrophysics Studies

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    AbstractA method to shape the neutron energy spectrum at low-energy accelerators is proposed by modification of the initial proton energy distribution. A first application to the superconductive RFQ of the SPES project at Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro is investigated for the production of a Maxwell–Boltzmann neutron spectrum at kT = 30 keV via the 7Li(p, n)7Be reaction. Concept, solutions and calculations for a setup consisting of a proton energy shaper and a lithium target are presented. It is found that a power dentisity of 3 kW cm−2 could be sustained by the lithium target and a forward-directed neutron flux higher than 1010 s−1 at the sample position could be obtained. In the framework of the SPES project the construction of a LEgnaro NeutrOn Source (LENOS) for Astrophysics and for validation of integral nuclear data is proposed, suited for activation studies on stable and unstable isotopes

    Isotopic Composition of Fragments in Nuclear Multifragmentation

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    The isotope yields of fragments, produced in the decay of the quasiprojectile in Au+Au peripheral collisions at 35 MeV/nucleon and those coming from the disassembly of the unique source formed in Xe+Cu central reactions at 30 MeV/nucleon, were measured. We show that the relative yields of neutron-rich isotopes increase with the excitation energy in multifragmentation reaction. In the framework of the statistical multifragmentation model which fairly well reproduces the experimental observables, this behaviour can be explained by increasing N/Z ratio of hot primary fragments, that corresponds to the statistical evolution of the decay mechanism with the excitation energy: from a compound-like decay to complete multifragmentation.Comment: 10 pages. 4 Postscript figures. Submitted to Physical Review C, Rapid Communicatio

    Eco-Driving Strategy Implementation for Ultra-Efficient Lightweight Electric Vehicles in Realistic Driving Scenarios

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    This paper aims to provide a quantitative assessment of the effect of driver action and road traffic conditions in the real implementation of eco-driving strategies. The study specifically refers to an ultra-efficient battery-powered electric vehicle designed for energy-efficiency competitions. The method is based on the definition of digital twins of vehicle and driving scenario. The models are used in a driving simulator to accurately evaluate the power demand. The vehicle digital twin is built in a co-simulation environment between VI-CarRealTime and Simulink. A digital twin of the Brooklands Circuit (UK) is created leveraging the software RoadRunner. After validation with actual telemetry acquisitions, the model is employed offline to find the optimal driving strategy, namely, the optimal input throttle profile, which minimizes the energy consumption over an entire lap. The obtained reference driving strategy is used during real-time driving sessions at the dynamic driving simulator installed at Politecnico di Milano (DriSMi) to include the effects of human driver and road traffic conditions. Results assess that, in a realistic driving scenario, the energy demand could increase more than 20% with respect to the theoretical value. Such a reduction in performance can be mitigated by adopting eco-driving assistance systems

    Micro-channel–based high specific power lithium target

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    A micro-channel–based heat sink has been produced and tested. The device has been developed to be used as a Lithium target for the LENOS (Legnaro Neutron Source) facility and for the production of radioisotope. Nevertheless, applications of such device can span on many areas: cooling of electronic devices, diode laser array, automotive applications etc. The target has been tested using a proton beam of 2.8MeV energy and delivering total power shots from 100W to 1500W with beam spots varying from 5mm2 to 19mm2. Since the target has been designed to be used with a thin deposit of lithium and since lithium is a low-melting-point material, we have measured that, for such application, a specific power of about 3kW/cm2 can be delivered to the target, keeping the maximum surface temperature not exceeding 150◦C

    Calibration of the response function of CsI(Tl) scintillators to intermediate-energy heavy ions

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    Abstract The response function of 2-cm-thick CsI(Tl) scintillators with photodiode readouts were studied by directly exposing the detectors to beams of heavy ions (2≤Z≤36) with energy up to 25 MeV/u. The dependence of the light output on the energy (E) as well as on the atomic number and the mass of the ion is analyzed and discussed, and a parameterization of the light output as a function of Z and E is proposed

    NWLEAR INSTRUMENTS a METwIas IN PHVUCS REsEARcH Sfxlm A A procedure to calibrate a multi-modular telescope

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    Abstract A procedure has been developed for the charge, mass and energy calibration of ions produced in nuclear heavy ion reactions. The charge and mass identification are based on a AE-E technique. A computer code determines the conversion from ADC channels into energy values, atomic number and mass of the detected fragments by comparing with energy loss calculations through a minimization routine. The procedure does not need prior measurements with beams of known energy and charge. An application of this technique to the calibration of the MULTlCS apparatus is described

    Grip control and motor coordination with implanted and surface electrodes while grasping with an osseointegrated prosthetic hand

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    Background: Replacement of a lost limb by an artificial substitute is not yet ideal. Resolution and coordination of motor control approximating that of a biological limb could dramatically improve the functionality of prosthetic devices, and thus reduce the gap towards a suitable limb replacement. Methods: In this study, we investigated the control resolution and coordination exhibited by subjects with transhumeral amputation who were implanted with epimysial electrodes and an osseointegrated interface that provides bidirectional communication in addition to skeletal attachment (e-OPRA Implant System). We assessed control resolution and coordination in the context of routine and delicate grasping using the Pick and Lift and the Virtual Eggs Tests. Performance when utilizing implanted electrodes was compared with the standard-of-care technology for myoelectric prostheses, namely surface electrodes. Results: Results showed that implanted electrodes provide superior controllability over the prosthetic terminal device compared to conventional surface electrodes. Significant improvements were found in the control of the grip force and its reliability during object transfer. However, these improvements failed to increase motor coordination, and surprisingly decreased the temporal correlation between grip and load forces observed with surface electrodes. We found that despite being more functional and reliable, prosthetic control via implanted electrodes still depended highly on visual feedback. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that incidental sensory feedback (visual, auditory, and osseoperceptive in this case) is insufficient for restoring natural grasp behavior in amputees, and support the idea that supplemental tactile sensory feedback is needed to learn and maintain the motor tasks internal model, which could ultimately restore natural grasp behavior in subjects using prosthetic hands

    A new study of 25^{25}Mg(α\alpha,n)28^{28}Si angular distributions at EαE_\alpha = 3 - 5 MeV

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    The observation of 26^{26}Al gives us the proof of active nucleosynthesis in the Milky Way. However the identification of the main producers of 26^{26}Al is still a matter of debate. Many sites have been proposed, but our poor knowledge of the nuclear processes involved introduces high uncertainties. In particular, the limited accuracy on the 25^{25}Mg(α\alpha,n)28^{28}Si reaction cross section has been identified as the main source of nuclear uncertainty in the production of 26^{26}Al in C/Ne explosive burning in massive stars, which has been suggested to be the main source of 26^{26}Al in the Galaxy. We studied this reaction through neutron spectroscopy at the CN Van de Graaff accelerator of the Legnaro National Laboratories. Thanks to this technique we are able to discriminate the (α\alpha,n) events from possible contamination arising from parasitic reactions. In particular, we measured the neutron angular distributions at 5 different beam energies (between 3 and 5 MeV) in the \ang{17.5}-\ang{106} laboratory system angular range. The presented results disagree with the assumptions introduced in the analysis of a previous experiment.Comment: 9 pages, 9 figures - accepted by EPJ

    Isotopic composition of fragments in multifragmentation of very large nuclear systems: effects of the chemical equilibrium

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    Studies on the isospin of fragments resulting from the disassembly of highly excited large thermal-like nuclear emitting sources, formed in the ^{197}Au + ^{197}Au reaction at 35 MeV/nucleon beam energy, are presented. Two different decay systems (the quasiprojectile formed in midperipheral reactions and the unique source coming from the incomplete fusion of projectile and target in the most central collisions) were considered; these emitting sources have the same initial N/Z ratio and excitation energy (E^* ~= 5--6 MeV/nucleon), but different size. Their charge yields and isotopic content of the fragments show different distributions. It is observed that the neutron content of intermediate mass fragments increases with the size of the source. These evidences are consistent with chemical equilibrium reached in the systems. This fact is confirmed by the analysis with the statistical multifragmentation model.Comment: 9 pages, 4 ps figure

    GARFIELD + RCo Digital Upgrade: a Modern Set-up for Mass and Charge Identification of Heavy Ion Reaction Products

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    An upgraded GARFIELD + Ring Counter (RCo) apparatus is presented with improved performances as far as electronics and detectors are concerned. On one side fast sampling digital read out has been extended to all detectors, allowing for an important simplification of the signal processing chain together with an enriched extracted information. On the other side a relevant improvement has been made in the forward part of the setup (RCo): an increased granularity of the CsI(Tl) crystals and a higher homogeneity in the silicon detector resistivity. The renewed performances of the GARFIELD + RCo array make it suitable for nuclear reaction measurements both with stable and with Radioactive Ion Beams (RIB), like the ones foreseen for the SPES facility, where the Physics of Isospin can be studied.Comment: 13 pages, 19 figures - paper submitted to Eur. Phys. J.
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