58 research outputs found

    Diffusing-wave polarimetry for tissue diagnostics

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    We exploit the directional awareness of circularly and/or elliptically polarized light propagating within media which exhibit high numbers of scattering events. By tracking the Stokes vector of the detected light on the PoincaŇēe sphere, we demonstrate its applicability for characterization of anisotropy of scattering. A phenomenological model is shown to have an excellent agreement with the experimental data and with the results obtained by the polarization tracking Monte Carlo model, developed in house. By analogy to diffusing-wave spectroscopy we call this approach diffusing-wave polarimetry, and illustrate its utility in probing cancerous and non-cancerous tissue samplesin vitro for diagnostic purposes

    Faecal immunochemical tests (FIT) can help to rule out colorectal cancer in patients presenting in primary care with lower abdominal symptoms:a systematic review conducted to inform new NICE DG30 diagnostic guidance

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    __Background:__ This study has attempted to assess the effectiveness of quantitative faecal immunochemical tests (FIT) for triage of people presenting with lower abdominal symptoms, where a referral to secondary care for investigation of suspected colorectal cancer (CRC) is being considered, particularly when the 2-week criteria are not met. __Methods:__ We conducted a systematic review following published guidelines for systematic reviews of diagnostic tests. Twenty-one resources were searched up until March 2016. Summary estimates were calculated using a bivariate model or a random-effects logistic regression model. __Results:__ Nine studies are included in this review. One additional study, included in our systematic review, was provided as 'academic in confidence' and cannot be described herein. When FIT was based on a single faecal sample and a cut-off of 10 őľg Hb/g faeces, sensitivity estimates indicated that a negative result using either the OC-Sensor or HM-JACKarc may be adequate to rule out nearly all CRC; the summary estimate of sensitivity for the OC-Sensor was 92.1%, based on four studies, and the only study of HM-JACKarc to assess the 10 őľg Hb/g faeces cut-off reported a sensitivity of 100%. The corresponding specificity estimates were 85.8% (95% CI 78.3-91.0%) and 76.6%, respectively. When the diagnostic criterion was changed to include lower grades of neoplasia, i.e. the target condition included higher risk adenoma (HRA) as well as CRC, the rule-out performance of both FIT assays was reduced. __Conclusions:__ There is evidence to suggest that triage using FIT at a cut-off around 10 őľg Hb/g faeces has the potential to correctly rule out CRC and avoid colonoscopy in 75-80% of symptomatic patients. Systematic review registration: PROSPERO 4201603772

    Search for dark matter produced in association with bottom or top quarks in ‚ąös = 13 TeV pp collisions with the ATLAS detector

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    A search for weakly interacting massive particle dark matter produced in association with bottom or top quarks is presented. Final states containing third-generation quarks and miss- ing transverse momentum are considered. The analysis uses 36.1 fb‚ąí1 of proton‚Äďproton collision data recorded by the ATLAS experiment at ‚ąös = 13 TeV in 2015 and 2016. No significant excess of events above the estimated backgrounds is observed. The results are in- terpreted in the framework of simplified models of spin-0 dark-matter mediators. For colour- neutral spin-0 mediators produced in association with top quarks and decaying into a pair of dark-matter particles, mediator masses below 50 GeV are excluded assuming a dark-matter candidate mass of 1 GeV and unitary couplings. For scalar and pseudoscalar mediators produced in association with bottom quarks, the search sets limits on the production cross- section of 300 times the predicted rate for mediators with masses between 10 and 50 GeV and assuming a dark-matter mass of 1 GeV and unitary coupling. Constraints on colour- charged scalar simplified models are also presented. Assuming a dark-matter particle mass of 35 GeV, mediator particles with mass below 1.1 TeV are excluded for couplings yielding a dark-matter relic density consistent with measurements

    Future Experiences: Sustainable Development and the Global South

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    The Sustainable Development and the Global South project was jointly conceived by the Innovation School at Glasgow School of Art in partnership with the Sustainable Futures in Africa Network (SFA), and the University of Glasgow. Graduating final year BDes Product Design students from the Innovation School were presented with a challenge-based project to produce a vision of the future based on current trends that relate to Sustainable Development work and the Global South. This project involved working closely with researchers, academics and professionals specialising in human geography, education, health, environment, engineering, cultural practice and community engagement who are part of the Sustainable Futures in Africa Network which includes a Scottish hub, led from the University of Glasgow. Included in the network was a representative from an NGO that builds schools in Malawi, an entrepreneur who runs an ethical clothing company that partners with producers in the Global South, a senior governance officer from the UK Government‚Äôs Department for International Development (DFID), a research network administrator, and international graduate students from Africa based at Scottish institutions. In addition to the SFA, external experts from design studio AndThen and GOODD design consultancy were engaged. The objective of this project was to investigate, in both analytical and speculative ways, future forms and functions of Sustainable Development work in relation to the Global South in ten years from now, to develop future scenarios and design the artefacts, services and the experiences associated with these future visions. On completion of the project and learning experience it was intended that the students would be able to recognise and articulate the impact and sustainability of their design propositions, consider the life-cycle of their proposals and the values these might create for the intended users, communities and contexts. The project was completed in January 2020, as the Covid-19 pandemic was just beginning its spread around the world. This unprecedented catastrophe reinforced the importance of supporting those most in need ‚Äď the citizens of developing regions in the Global South. In April 2020, the heads of all the UN‚Äôs major agencies issued an open letter warning of the risks the virus posed to the world‚Äôs most vulnerable countries. It called on wealthier nations to increase funding and help to tackle issues such as the cessation of aid as a result of cancelled flights and disrupted supply routes. These and many other concerns highlighted during the crisis are among the topics explored in this project, which feels even more relevant and urgent than when it was initiated in the summer of 2019. One of the most significant societal shifts currently taking place within the field of sustainable development work is its transformation from being understood as a process of growth or, at its most benign, poverty alleviation, to one of community empowerment and civic participation. The public‚Äôs role is developing beyond once-passive community members and recipients of aid, into stakeholders valued for their local knowledge, lived experiences, participation in development projects, and contribution towards policy-making and decision-making. This new dynamic is changing the traditional North-South relationship and holds the potential to challenge the geopolitical hegemony of International Development. The impetus for this shift is a decolonial, collaborative approach to development, research and practice; increased local empowerment, and sustainable solutions to problems that are co-created in context with those affected by and affecting the issue in question. This project asked students to consider what happens in this global landscape ten years from now where Sustainable Development has evolved to the extent that new forms of work and communities of practice transform how people engage, learn and interact with each other, with stakeholders and with the global community around them. The brief gave students the opportunity to explore the underlying complexities regarding sustainable futures, the post-colonial dynamic between ‚Äėnorths‚Äô and ‚Äėsouths‚Äô, post-capitalism and human agency, to envision a future world context, develop it as an experiential exhibit, and produce the designed products, services and experiences for the people who might live and work within it. The project was divided into two sections: The first was a collaborative stage where groups of students were assigned a specific domain to collectively research one aspect of the project challenge, these domains included; Health, Energy, Mobility, Economies, Education, Societal Structures and Environment. Each of these domains were examined through the lenses of Social, Technological, Economic, Ethical, Educational, Values, Political, Legal and Ecological (STEEEVPLE) and were tailored in use, as appropriate per domain. The groups focused on researching and exploring their specific domain and gathering as much information and understanding while working with the external experts to further their knowledge. This group stage culminated in a series of Future World exhibits which tangibly manifest the cohort‚Äôs collective knowledge and collaborative understanding of what the future could look like in 10 years from now, after exploring the possible consequences of current actions. The second stage saw students explore their individual response to the Future World that had been created in the first stage. Each student developed their own response to the research by iteratively creating a design outcome that was appropriate to the subject matter. This culminated in each student producing a designed product, service or system and a visual communication of the future experience which they had created. A visual summary of the journey and stages (Project Journey Map) is included within the repository and outlines the collaborative process of designing and the innovative nature of the project‚Äôs pedagogical model. The project aims to reveal and address the emerging possibilities collaboratively created by Sustainable Development professionals and designers interacting and learning from each other, to present preferable futures which reveal socio-ecological innovations in development work with the Global South in the near future. The deposited materials are arranged as follows: Readme files - two readme files relate to stage one and stage two of the project as outlined above. Project Journey Map - gives a visual overview of the pedagogical structure and timeline of the project. Data folders - the data folders for stage one of the project are named by the domains through which each group explored possible futures. The data folders for stage two of the project are named for the individual students who conducted the work
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