1,463 research outputs found

    Mixing patterns and community structure in networks

    Full text link
    Common experience suggests that many networks might possess community structure - division of vertices into groups, with a higher density of edges within groups than between them. Here we describe a new computer algorithm that detects structure of this kind. We apply the algorithm to a number of real-world networks and show that they do indeed possess non-trivial community structure. We suggest a possible explanation for this structure in the mechanism of assortative mixing, which is the preferential association of network vertices with others that are like them in some way. We show by simulation that this mechanism can indeed account for community structure. We also look in detail at one particular example of assortative mixing, namely mixing by vertex degree, in which vertices with similar degree prefer to be connected to one another. We propose a measure for mixing of this type which we apply to a variety of networks, and also discuss the implications for network structure and the formation of a giant component in assortatively mixed networks.Comment: 21 pages, 9 postscript figures, 2 table

    Optimal design, robustness, and risk aversion

    Full text link
    Highly optimized tolerance is a model of optimization in engineered systems, which gives rise to power-law distributions of failure events in such systems. The archetypal example is the highly optimized forest fire model. Here we give an analytic solution for this model which explains the origin of the power laws. We also generalize the model to incorporate risk aversion, which results in truncation of the tails of the power law so that the probability of disastrously large events is dramatically lowered, giving the system more robustness.Comment: 11 pages, 2 figure

    Modularity and community structure in networks

    Full text link
    Many networks of interest in the sciences, including a variety of social and biological networks, are found to divide naturally into communities or modules. The problem of detecting and characterizing this community structure has attracted considerable recent attention. One of the most sensitive detection methods is optimization of the quality function known as "modularity" over the possible divisions of a network, but direct application of this method using, for instance, simulated annealing is computationally costly. Here we show that the modularity can be reformulated in terms of the eigenvectors of a new characteristic matrix for the network, which we call the modularity matrix, and that this reformulation leads to a spectral algorithm for community detection that returns results of better quality than competing methods in noticeably shorter running times. We demonstrate the algorithm with applications to several network data sets.Comment: 7 pages, 3 figure

    Vulnerability and Protection of Critical Infrastructures

    Full text link
    Critical infrastructure networks are a key ingredient of modern society. We discuss a general method to spot the critical components of a critical infrastructure network, i.e. the nodes and the links fundamental to the perfect functioning of the network. Such nodes, and not the most connected ones, are the targets to protect from terrorist attacks. The method, used as an improvement analysis, can also help to better shape a planned expansion of the network.Comment: 4 pages, 1 figure, 3 table

    Maps of random walks on complex networks reveal community structure

    Full text link
    To comprehend the multipartite organization of large-scale biological and social systems, we introduce a new information theoretic approach that reveals community structure in weighted and directed networks. The method decomposes a network into modules by optimally compressing a description of information flows on the network. The result is a map that both simplifies and highlights the regularities in the structure and their relationships. We illustrate the method by making a map of scientific communication as captured in the citation patterns of more than 6000 journals. We discover a multicentric organization with fields that vary dramatically in size and degree of integration into the network of science. Along the backbone of the network -- including physics, chemistry, molecular biology, and medicine -- information flows bidirectionally, but the map reveals a directional pattern of citation from the applied fields to the basic sciences.Comment: 7 pages and 4 figures plus supporting material. For associated source code, see http://www.tp.umu.se/~rosvall

    Multiscale Dynamics in Communities of Phase Oscillators

    Full text link
    We investigate the dynamics of systems of many coupled phase oscillators with het- erogeneous frequencies. We suppose that the oscillators occur in M groups. Each oscillator is connected to other oscillators in its group with "attractive" coupling, such that the coupling promotes synchronization within the group. The coupling between oscillators in different groups is "repulsive"; i.e., their oscillation phases repel. To address this problem, we reduce the governing equations to a lower-dimensional form via the ansatz of Ott and Antonsen . We first consider the symmetric case where all group parameters are the same, and the attractive and repulsive coupling are also the same for each of the M groups. We find a manifold L of neutrally stable equilibria, and we show that all other equilibria are unstable. For M \geq 3, L has dimension M - 2, and for M = 2 it has dimension 1. To address the general asymmetric case, we then introduce small deviations from symmetry in the group and coupling param- eters. Doing a slow/fast timescale analysis, we obtain slow time evolution equations for the motion of the M groups on the manifold L. We use these equations to study the dynamics of the groups and compare the results with numerical simulations.Comment: 29 pages, 6 figure

    Mixture models and exploratory analysis in networks

    Get PDF
    Networks are widely used in the biological, physical, and social sciences as a concise mathematical representation of the topology of systems of interacting components. Understanding the structure of these networks is one of the outstanding challenges in the study of complex systems. Here we describe a general technique for detecting structural features in large-scale network data which works by dividing the nodes of a network into classes such that the members of each class have similar patterns of connection to other nodes. Using the machinery of probabilistic mixture models and the expectation-maximization algorithm, we show that it is possible to detect, without prior knowledge of what we are looking for, a very broad range of types of structure in networks. We give a number of examples demonstrating how the method can be used to shed light on the properties of real-world networks, including social and information networks.Comment: 8 pages, 4 figures, two new examples in this version plus minor correction

    Resolution limit in community detection

    Get PDF
    Detecting community structure is fundamental to clarify the link between structure and function in complex networks and is used for practical applications in many disciplines. A successful method relies on the optimization of a quantity called modularity [Newman and Girvan, Phys. Rev. E 69, 026113 (2004)], which is a quality index of a partition of a network into communities. We find that modularity optimization may fail to identify modules smaller than a scale which depends on the total number L of links of the network and on the degree of interconnectedness of the modules, even in cases where modules are unambiguously defined. The probability that a module conceals well-defined substructures is the highest if the number of links internal to the module is of the order of \sqrt{2L} or smaller. We discuss the practical consequences of this result by analyzing partitions obtained through modularity optimization in artificial and real networks.Comment: 8 pages, 3 figures. Clarification of definition of community in Section II + minor revision

    Evidential Communities for Complex Networks

    Get PDF
    Community detection is of great importance for understand-ing graph structure in social networks. The communities in real-world networks are often overlapped, i.e. some nodes may be a member of multiple clusters. How to uncover the overlapping communities/clusters in a complex network is a general problem in data mining of network data sets. In this paper, a novel algorithm to identify overlapping communi-ties in complex networks by a combination of an evidential modularity function, a spectral mapping method and evidential c-means clustering is devised. Experimental results indicate that this detection approach can take advantage of the theory of belief functions, and preforms good both at detecting community structure and determining the appropri-ate number of clusters. Moreover, the credal partition obtained by the proposed method could give us a deeper insight into the graph structure
    • …