41 research outputs found

    Characterization of gaseous odorous emissions from a rendering plant by GC/MS and treatment by biofiltration.

    No full text
    International audienceThis research focuses on the identification and quantification of odorous components in rendering plant emissions by GC/MS and other analytical methods, as well as the description of phenomena occurring in biofilter in order to improve the removal efficiency of industrial biofilters. Among the 36 compounds quantified in the process air stream, methanethiol, isopentanal and hydrogen sulfide, presented the major odorous contributions according to their high concentrations, generally higher than 10 mg m(-3), and their low odorous detection thresholds. The elimination of such component mixtures by biofiltration (Peat packing material, EBRT: 113 s) was investigated and revealed that more than 83% of hydrogen sulfide and isopentanal were removed by biofilter. Nevertheless, the incomplete degradation of such easily degradable pollutants suggested inappropriate conditions as lack of nutrients and acidic pH. These inadequate conditions could explain the lack of performance, especially observed on methanethiol (53% of RE) and the production of oxygenated and sulfur by-products by the biofilter itself

    ETUDE DE L'OXYDATION EN VOIE HUMIDE DE BOUES RESIDUAIRES URBAINES ET INTEGRATION DANS UNE STATION D'EPURATION

    No full text
    L'OXYDATION EN VOIE HUMIDE A L'OXYGENE PUR EST ETUDIEE POUR REPONDRE AU PROBLEME D'ACTUALITE DU TRAITEMENT DES BOUES RESIDUAIRES URBAINES. L'ETUDE DE CE PROCEDE EST REALISEE EN REACTEUR DISCONTINU DE LABORATOIRE, EN REACTEUR CONTINU DE LABORATOIRE ET LORS D'ESSAIS SUR UN PROTOTYPE INDUSTRIEL DE CAPACITE 500 L/H ET POUR DES TEMPERATURES COMPRISES ENTRE 220\C ET 300\C. IL RESSORT DE L'ENSEMBLE DES RESULTATS OBSERVES LORS DU TRAITEMENT DE 7 BOUES URBAINES DIFFERENTES QUE PLUS LA TEMPERATURE DE TRAITEMENT EST ELEVEE, PLUS LA MINERALISATION DES SOUS-PRODUITS EST IMPORTANTE ET LEUR TRAITEMENT AVANT EVACUATION AISEE. DE PLUS, AU DESSUS DE 260\C, LA DESTRUCTION DES COMPOSES GRAS SUPPRIME LES PHENOMENES DE MOUSSAGE. A 300\C, LE TEMPS DE TRAITEMENT PEUT ETRE REDUIT A ENVIRON 30 MIN. ENSUITE, DES PROCEDES DE CONVERSION DE L'AZOTE AMMONIACAL RESIDUEL EN AZOTE MOLECULAIRE SONT ETUDIES AFIN DE PERMETTRE LE SEUL RECYCLAGE DES COMPOSES ORGANIQUES BIODEGRADABLES ISSUS DE L'OXYDATION ET PERMETTRE L'INTEGRATION DE CE PROCEDE DANS LES STATIONS D'EPURATION EXISTANTES TOUT EN GARANTISSANT LA FIABILITE DE LEUR FONCTIONNEMENT. DANS LE CAS DU DEGAZAGE DE L'AMMONIAQUE COUPLE A UNE OXYDATION CATALYTIQUE, LE DEGAZAGE DE L'AMMONIAQUE DOIT S'EFFECTUER A UNE TEMPERATURE INFERIEURE A 100\C ET AVEC AJOUT DE SOUDE AFIN DE STRIPPER SELECTIVEMENT L'AMMONIAQUE. LE TRAITEMENT BIOLOGIQUE PAR NITRIFICATION ET DENITRIFICATION EN BASSIN SPECIFIQUE REPOND EGALEMENT AUX EXIGENCES DE TRAITEMENT ET D'INTEGRATION DE CE PROCEDE MAIS NECESSITE L'AJOUT D'UN COMPLEMENT DE SUBSTRAT ORGANIQUE BIODEGRADABLE AFIN QUE L'ELIMINATION DES NITRATES PRODUITS SOIT TOTALE. CE TRAVAIL A PERMIS DE LEVER UN NOMBRE SIGNIFICATIF D'OBSTACLES SCIENTIFIQUES ET TECHNOLOGIQUES ET S'INSCRIT DANS LE CADRE DU DEVELOPPEMENT DU PROCEDE MINERALIS.TOULOUSE-INSA (315552106) / SudocSudocFranceF

    Conventional and Innovative Hygienization of Feedstock for Biogas Production: Resistance of Indicator Bacteria to Thermal Pasteurization, Pulsed Electric Field Treatment, and Anaerobic Digestion

    No full text
    International audienceAnimal by-products (ABP) can be valorized via anaerobic digestion (AD) for biogas energy generation. The digestate issued from AD process is usually used to fertilize farming land for agricultural activities, which may cause potential sanitary risk to the environment. The European Union (EU) requires that certain ABP be thermally pasteurized in order to minimize this sanitary risk. This process is called hygienization, which can be replaced by alternative nonthermal technologies like pulsed electric field (PEF). In the present study, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 19433 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 were used as indicator bacteria. Their resistance to thermal pasteurization and PEF treatment were characterized. Results show that Ent. faecalis and E. coli are reduced by 5 log10 in less than 1 min during thermal pasteurization at 70 °C. The critical electric field strength was estimated at 18 kV∙cm−1 for Ent. faecalis and 1 kV∙cm−1 for E. coli. “G+” bacteria Ent. faecalis are generally more resistant than “G−” bacteria E. coli. AD process also plays an important role in pathogens inactivation, whose performance depends on the microorganisms considered, digestion temperature, residence time, and type of feedstock. Thermophilic digestion is usually more efficient in pathogens removal than mesophilic digestion

    Overview of hygienization pretreatment for pasteurization and methane potential enhancement of biowaste: Challenges, state of the art and alternative technologies

    No full text
    International audienceHygienization reduces the public health risks involved in the application of biowaste to agricultural land. Recent advances in the hygienization of treated biowaste have not been reviewed to date. In many countries, the process involves using low temperature thermal pasteurization. Thermal hygienization accounts for between 6% and 25% of primary energy production in European biogas plants. Hygienization pretreatment can also influence the production of biogas by the treated substrates (from a slight negative effect to a biogas yield surplus of 50% in most cases). Alternative athermal pasteurization technologies (including electro-technology, microwave, pressurization, ultrasound and chemical treatment) have been shown to be capable of considerably reducing the number of bacteria and increasing the methane yield. The performance of these alternatives varies greatly and depends on the type of biowaste, the operational parameters studied, energy input and the method of interpreting the experimental results. Analyses of energy and exergy efficiency, of environmental impacts and of economic feasibility show that thermal hygienization may be the most energy efficient and economical approach when it exploits the wasted heat recovered from other processes. The present study also revealed that the research focus has been confined to the sewage sludge. Studies on the other biowaste, including animal by-products, are needed

    N 2 O and NO emissions during wastewater denitrification step: Influence of temperature on the biological process

    No full text
    International audienceThe denitrification process occurring in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is responsible for nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO) emissions. These compounds indirectly lead to the global warming. In this study, we investigated the impact of the temperature on N2O and NO emissions. Experiments were achieved at PH 7 in a batch reactor with acetate as the carbon source. The nitrogen source was nitrates (NO3−) and the COD/N ratio was set to three. Results showed that NO and N2O emissions increased when the temperature decreased. NO emissions appeared only at 10 °C and 5 °C, with respectively 8% and 18% of the total denitrified nitrogen. N2O emissions increased from 13 to 40 then 82% of the total denitrified nitrogen, respectively at 20, 10 and 5 °C. Several hypotheses were suggested to explain these results: a general enzymatic slow down, enzymatic inhibitions, electron donor competition between the different enzymes and metabolic pathway alterations

    Biofuel Production from Seaweeds: A Comprehensive Review

    No full text
    Seaweeds represent a promising and sustainable feedstock for biofuel production which raises increasing research interests. Their high availability, easy fermentable composition, and good degradation potential make them a suitable candidate for alternating fossil fuels as an advantageous energy resource. This comprehensive review aims to summarize and discuss data from the literature on the biochemical composition of seaweeds and its potential for biomethane and biohydrogen production, as well as to investigate the effect of the common pretreatment methods. Satisfactory yields comparable to terrestrial biomass could be obtained through anaerobic digestion; concerning dark fermentation, the challenge remains to better define the operating conditions allowing a stable production of biohydrogen. Finally, we propose a potential energy production scheme with the seaweed found by the Caribbean Islands of Guadeloupe and Martinique, as well as current techno-economic challenges and future prospects. An annual energy potential of 66 GWh could be attained via a two-stage biohythane production process, this tends to be promising in terms of energetic valorization and coastal management

    Biofuel Production from Seaweeds: A Comprehensive Review

    No full text
    International audienceSeaweeds represent a promising and sustainable feedstock for biofuel production which raises increasing research interests. Their high availability, easy fermentable composition, and good degradation potential make them a suitable candidate for alternating fossil fuels as an advantageous energy resource. This comprehensive review aims to summarize and discuss data from the literature on the biochemical composition of seaweeds and its potential for biomethane and biohydrogen production, as well as to investigate the effect of the common pretreatment methods. Satisfactory yields comparable to terrestrial biomass could be obtained through anaerobic digestion; concerning dark fermentation, the challenge remains to better define the operating conditions allowing a stable production of biohydrogen. Finally, we propose a potential energy production scheme with the seaweed found by the Caribbean Islands of Guadeloupe and Martinique, as well as current techno-economic challenges and future prospects. An annual energy potential of 66 GWh could be attained via a two-stage biohythane production process, this tends to be promising in terms of energetic valorization and coastal management
    corecore