57,929 research outputs found

    Comments and corrections on 3D modeling studies of locomotor muscle moment arms in archosaurs

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    © 2015 Bates et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, reproduction and adaptation in any medium and for any purpose provided that it is properly attributed. For attribution, the original author(s), title, publication source (PeerJ) and either DOI or URL of the article must be cited. The attached file is the published version of the article

    'Girls into STEM and Komm mach MINT’: English and German approaches to support girls’ STEM career-related learning

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    European economies require STEM skilled people, yet compared with boys, girls demonstrate a tendency to reject some STEM study and STEM careers. This paper briefly reviews key factors that influence this phenomenon. It then introduces four examples of campaigns and initiatives that encourage girls to consider further participation in STEM in England and MINT in Germany as part of their career ambitions. Evidence of the impact of German initiatives is presented. It concludes that where there is a deliberate strategy linked with defined actions which tackle issues that are specific to girls, then gender imbalances can begin to change

    Career-related learning and science education: the changing landscape

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    Pupils ask STEM subject teachers about jobs and careers in science, but where else do they learn about work? This article outlines career-related learning within schools in England alongside other factors that influence pupils’ career decisions. The effect of the Education Act 2011 will be to change career learning in schools. The impact on science educators as advisers, facilitators, commissioners or managers of career-related learning is discussed, with a conclusion that, while science educators are not career educators, they nevertheless can support career-related learning in their delivery of the curriculum alongside enhancement and enrichment activities.Association for Science Education(ASE)http://www.ase.org.uk/home

    The accessible museum: towards an understanding of international museum audio description practices

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    Introduction: Audio description (AD) in museums is crucial for making them accessible for people with visual impairments. Nevertheless, there are limited museum-specific AD guidelines currently available. This research examines current varied international practitioner perspectives on museum AD, focusing on imagery, meaning, emotion and degrees of objectivity, and the regional differences (Europe, US) in AD traditions, in order to better understand how museum AD can be used to enhance access. Methods: Forty-two museum describers from 12 countries responded to a questionnaire requiring fixed-choice and free-text responses about the purpose and construction of museum AD. Results: Inference tests showed that European describers agreed more strongly than US describers that AD should ‘explore meaning’ (U = 91.00, N1 = 24, N2 = 14, p = 0.03), and ‘create an emotional experience’ (U = 89.50, N1 = 24, N2 = 14, p = 0.03), rating the use of cognitive prompts as more important (U = 85.50, N1 = 21, N2 = 14, p = 0.04). Qualitative data enriched this understanding by exploring participant responses on the themes of mental imagery, objectivity and interpretation and cognitive prompts. This highlighted broader agreement between regions on mental imagery, but more acceptance of interpretation in AD from the European respondents. Discussion: US and European describers’ opinions differ regarding the purpose of AD: whether it is about conveying visual information or whether broader interpretations should be incorporated into descriptions for audiences with visual impairments. Implications for Practitioners: These findings indicate that further discussion is needed regarding the purpose of museum AD, and in particular the way in which objectivity is contextualised. They raise questions about AD providing visual information, and/or seeking to address a wider museum experience, including the stimulation of curiosity or emotion

    Poverty and Disability: The Endless Loop

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    [Excerpt] Disability is a critical dimension of poverty in developing countries because poverty contributes to disability and disability leads to poverty. Poverty alleviation measures are unlikely to help poor disabled people who are insulated from information and isolated from opportunities and services by a de facto apartheid enforced by informational, physical and social obstacles. To be fully effective, poverty programs must take disability explicitly into account. The World Bank has noted that without paying attention to the rights and needs of people with disabilities (PWDs), Millennium Development Goals are unlikely to be achieved

    Maternity care and 'Every Child Matters'

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    The first part of the chapter will provide an introduction to maternity services in the UK and why it is the foundation of ‘Every Child Matters’. It is the earliest healthcare intervention of all for the child and it is essential to get it right for babies and parents. The role of the key professionals involved with care provision will be explained as they may be unfamiliar to some readers. By using case studies as examples, the chapter will then explore how each of them contributes to addressing the key recommendations of Every Child Matters including the Common Assessment framework (CAF) and the strategic challenges of the Children’s Workforce. The final part of the chapter will focus on discussing future trends in maternity care with relation to Every Child Matters

    Corporate governance

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    Governance is largely about the decision-making process in a complex organization Shareholders (owners) delegate authority to professionals who have the managerial skills to increase shareholders’ wealth. As a consequence the contributors of a firm's capital base are usually different from the contributors of its management base. This separation of ownership from control has led to organizations establishing a system of corporate governance controls designed to discourage managers from pursuing objectives that fail to maximize shareholder wealth. These controls constitute the firm's corporate governance framework. Corporate governance controls are designed to monitor managers behavior or align the goals of management with the goals of shareholders. In this chapter, a corporate governance framework is developed that outlines the roles and responsibilities of participants involved in governing the organization and portraying information to the capital market