1,938 research outputs found

    The Influence of Dust Formation Modelling on Na I and K I Line Profiles in Substellar Atmospheres

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    We aim to understand the correlation between cloud formation and alkali line formation in substellar atmospheres.We perform line profile calculations for Na I and K I based on the coupling of our kinetic model for the formation and composition of dust grains with 1D radiative transfer calculations in atmosphere models for brown dwarfs and giant gas planets. The Na I and K I line profiles sensibly depend on the way clouds are treated in substellar atmosphere simulations. The kinetic dust formation model results in the highest pseudo-continuum compared to the limiting cases.Comment: 5 pages, Accepted for publication in MNRA

    Benzene formation in the inner regions of protostellar disks

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    Benzene (c-C6H6) formation in the inner 3 AU of a protostellar disk can be efficient, resulting in high abundances of benzene in the midplane region. The formation mechanism is different to that found in interstellar clouds and in protoplanetary nebulae, and proceeds mainly through the reaction between allene (C3H4) and its ion. This has implications for PAH formation, in that some fraction of PAHs seen in the solar system could be native rather than inherited from the interstellar medium.Comment: 9 pages, 2 colour figures, to be published in the Astrophysical Journal Letter

    Hamiltonian and physical Hilbert space in polymer quantum mechanics

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    In this paper, a version of polymer quantum mechanics, which is inspired by loop quantum gravity, is considered and shown to be equivalent, in a precise sense, to the standard, experimentally tested, Schroedinger quantum mechanics. The kinematical cornerstone of our framework is the so called polymer representation of the Heisenberg-Weyl (H-W) algebra, which is the starting point of the construction. The dynamics is constructed as a continuum limit of effective theories characterized by a scale, and requires a renormalization of the inner product. The result is a physical Hilbert space in which the continuum Hamiltonian can be represented and that is unitarily equivalent to the Schroedinger representation of quantum mechanics. As a concrete implementation of our formalism, the simple harmonic oscillator is fully developed.Comment: 19 pages, 2 figures. Comments and references added. Version to be published in CQ

    Aluminium oxide in the atmosphere of hot Jupiter WASP-43bv

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    We have conducted a re-analysis of publicly available Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (HST WFC3) transmission data for the hot-Jupiter exoplanet WASP-43b, using the Bayesian retrieval package Tau-REx. We report evidence of AlO in transmission to a high level of statistical significance (>5ŌÉ in comparison to a flat model, and 3.4ŌÉ in comparison to a model with H2O only). We find no evidence of the presence of CO, CO2, or CH4 based on the available HST WFC3 data or on Spitzer IRAC data. We demonstrate that AlO is the molecule that fits the data to the highest level of confidence out of all molecules for which high-temperature opacity data currently exists in the infrared region covered by the HST WFC3 instrument, and that the subsequent inclusion of Spitzer IRAC data points in our retrieval further supports the presence of AlO. H2O is the only other molecule we find to be statistically significant in this region. AlO is not expected from the equilibrium chemistry at the temperatures and pressures of the atmospheric layer that is being probed by the observed data. Its presence therefore implies direct evidence of some disequilibrium processes with links to atmospheric dynamics. Implications for future study using instruments such as the James Webb Space Telescope are discussed, along with future opacity needs. Comparisons are made with previous studies into WASP-43b

    Gravity in quantum spacetime

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    The literature on quantum-gravity-inspired scenarios for the quantization of spacetime has so far focused on particle-physics-like studies. This is partly justified by the present limitations of our understanding of quantum-gravity theories, but we here argue that valuable insight can be gained through semi-heuristic analyses of the implications for gravitational phenomena of some results obtained in the quantum-spacetime literature. In particular, we show that the types of description of particle propagation that emerged in certain quantum-spacetime frameworks have striking implications for gravitational collapse and for the behaviour of gravity at large distances.Comment: This essay received honorable mention in the Gravity Research Foundation 2010 Awards for Essays on Gravitatio

    Effects of oxidized lipids (4,5 (E)-epoxy-2(E)-heptenal and 4,5 (E)-epoxy-2 (E) -decenal) and lysine reaction products on zinc and calcium utilization: assays in Caco-2 cells

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    The influence of the presence of brown products from the reaction between two oxidized lipids (4,5 (E)-epoxy-2(E)-heptenal, EH, and 4,5 (E)-epoxy-2 (E)-decenal, ED) and lysine (EH-L and ED-L) on zinc and calcium utilization was studied, and compared with a fructosyl-lysine mixture (F-L). Assays were carried out in Caco-2 cells grown in bicameral chambers. The Zn transported across the cell monolayer was significantly lower in the presence of the EH-L, ED-L and F-L samples, specially with EH-L. Significant decreases in Zn uptake were also observed, with no differences between samples. However, calcium transport was not modified. Thus, the assayed lipid-aminoacid brown products seem to have negative effects on Zn availability, whereas Ca availability appears to be unaffected.Se estudió la influencia de la presencia de productos obtenidos en la reacción de dos lípidos oxidados (4,5(E)-epoxy-2(E)- heptenal, EH, y 4,5(E)-epoxy-2(E)-decenal, ED) con el aminoácido lisina (EH-L y ED-L), sobre la absorción de zinc y calcio, comparándolos frente a una mezcla de fructosil-lisina (F-L). Los ensayos se realizaron con células Caco-2 sembradas en placas bicamerales. La adición de las muestras EH-L, ED-L y F-L al medio de cultivo supuso una reducción significativa en el Zn transportado a través de la monocapa de células, mucho más marcada ante la presencia de EH-L. También se redujo significativamente la captación celular de Zn, sin diferencias entre las distintas muestras ensayadas. Sin embargo, el transporte de Ca no se vio modificado. Por lo tanto, los productos pardos lípido-aminoacídicos ensayados parecen afectar negativamente la disponibilidad del Zn, sin tener efectos notables sobre la del Ca.Peer reviewe

    Mineral cloud and hydrocarbon haze particles in the atmosphere of the hot Jupiter JWST target WASP-43b

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    Context: Having a short orbital period and being tidally locked makes WASP-43b an ideal candidate for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) phase curve measurements. Phase curve observations of an entire orbit will enable the mapping of the atmospheric structure across the planet, with different wavelengths of observation allowing different atmospheric depths to be seen. Aims: We provide insight into the details of the clouds that may form on WASP-43b and their impact on the remaining gas phase, in order to prepare the forthcoming interpretation of the JWST and follow-up data. Methods: We follow a hierarchical modelling strategy. We utilise 3D GCM results as input for a kinetic, non-equilibrium model for mineral cloud particles and for a kinetic model to study a photochemically-driven hydrocarbon haze component. Results: Mineral condensation seeds form throughout the atmosphere of WASP-43b. This is in stark contrast to the ultra-hot Jupiters, such as WASP-18b and HAT-P-7b. The dayside is not cloud free but it is loaded with few yet large mineral cloud particles in addition to hydrocarbon haze particles of a comparable abundance. Photochemically driven hydrocarbon haze appears on the dayside, but it does not contribute to the cloud formation on the nightside. The geometrical cloud extension differs across the globe due to the changing thermodynamic conditions. Day and night differ by 6000 km in pressure scale height. As reported for other planets, the C/O is not constant throughout the atmosphere and varies between 0.74 and 0.3. The mean molecular weight is approximately constant in a H2- dominated WASP-43b atmosphere because of the moderate day/night-temperature differences compared to the super-hot Jupiters. Conclusions: WASP-43b is expected to be fully covered in clouds which are not homogeneously distributed throughout the atmosphere. The dayside and the terminator clouds are a combination of mineral particles of locally varying size and composition as well as of hydrocarbon hazes. The optical depth of hydrocarbon hazes is considerably lower than that of mineral cloud particles such that a wavelength-dependent radius measurement of WASP-43b would be determined by the mineral cloud particles but not by hazes

    On The Interaction Of D0-Brane Bound States And RR Photons

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    We consider the problem of the interaction between D0-brane bound state and 1-form RR photons by the world-line theory. Based on the fact that in the world-line theory the RR gauge fields depend on the matrix coordinates of D0-branes, the gauge fields also appear as matrices in the formulation. At the classical level, we derive the Lorentz-like equations of motion for D0-branes, and it is observed that the center-of-mass is colourless with respect to the SU(N) sector of the background. Using the path integral method, the perturbation theory for the interaction between the bound state and the RR background is developed. We discuss what kind of field theory may be corresponded to the amplitudes which are calculated by the perturbation expansion in world-line theory. Qualitative considerations show that the possibility of existence of a map between the world-line theory and the non-Abelian gauge theory is very considerable.Comment: LaTeX, 28 pages, 4 eps figures. v2 and v3: eqs. (3.18) and (B.2) are corrected, very small change
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