5,490 research outputs found

    Slightly generalized Generalized Contagion: Unifying simple models of biological and social spreading

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    We motivate and explore the basic features of generalized contagion, a model mechanism that unifies fundamental models of biological and social contagion. Generalized contagion builds on the elementary observation that spreading and contagion of all kinds involve some form of system memory. We discuss the three main classes of systems that generalized contagion affords, resembling: simple biological contagion; critical mass contagion of social phenomena; and an intermediate, and explosive, vanishing critical mass contagion. We also present a simple explanation of the global spreading condition in the context of a small seed of infected individuals.Comment: 8 pages, 5 figures; chapter to appear in "Spreading Dynamics in Social Systems"; Eds. Sune Lehmann and Yong-Yeol Ahn, Springer Natur

    Functional centrality in graphs

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    In this paper we introduce the functional centrality as a generalization of the subgraph centrality. We propose a general method for characterizing nodes in the graph according to the number of closed walks starting and ending at the node. Closed walks are appropriately weighted according to the topological features that we need to measure

    A New Methodology for Generalizing Unweighted Network Measures

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    Several important complex network measures that helped discovering common patterns across real-world networks ignore edge weights, an important information in real-world networks. We propose a new methodology for generalizing measures of unweighted networks through a generalization of the cardinality concept of a set of weights. The key observation here is that many measures of unweighted networks use the cardinality (the size) of some subset of edges in their computation. For example, the node degree is the number of edges incident to a node. We define the effective cardinality, a new metric that quantifies how many edges are effectively being used, assuming that an edge's weight reflects the amount of interaction across that edge. We prove that a generalized measure, using our method, reduces to the original unweighted measure if there is no disparity between weights, which ensures that the laws that govern the original unweighted measure will also govern the generalized measure when the weights are equal. We also prove that our generalization ensures a partial ordering (among sets of weighted edges) that is consistent with the original unweighted measure, unlike previously developed generalizations. We illustrate the applicability of our method by generalizing four unweighted network measures. As a case study, we analyze four real-world weighted networks using our generalized degree and clustering coefficient. The analysis shows that the generalized degree distribution is consistent with the power-law hypothesis but with steeper decline and that there is a common pattern governing the ratio between the generalized degree and the traditional degree. The analysis also shows that nodes with more uniform weights tend to cluster with nodes that also have more uniform weights among themselves.Comment: 23 pages, 10 figure

    The Emergence of Norms via Contextual Agreements in Open Societies

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    This paper explores the emergence of norms in agents' societies when agents play multiple -even incompatible- roles in their social contexts simultaneously, and have limited interaction ranges. Specifically, this article proposes two reinforcement learning methods for agents to compute agreements on strategies for using common resources to perform joint tasks. The computation of norms by considering agents' playing multiple roles in their social contexts has not been studied before. To make the problem even more realistic for open societies, we do not assume that agents share knowledge on their common resources. So, they have to compute semantic agreements towards performing their joint actions. %The paper reports on an empirical study of whether and how efficiently societies of agents converge to norms, exploring the proposed social learning processes w.r.t. different society sizes, and the ways agents are connected. The results reported are very encouraging, regarding the speed of the learning process as well as the convergence rate, even in quite complex settings

    Tracking advanced persistent threats in critical infrastructures through opinion dynamics

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    Advanced persistent threats pose a serious issue for modern industrial environments, due to their targeted and complex attack vectors that are difficult to detect. This is especially severe in critical infrastructures that are accelerating the integration of IT technologies. It is then essential to further develop effective monitoring and response systems that ensure the continuity of business to face the arising set of cyber-security threats. In this paper, we study the practical applicability of a novel technique based on opinion dynamics, that permits to trace the attack throughout all its stages along the network by correlating different anomalies measured over time, thereby taking the persistence of threats and the criticality of resources into consideration. The resulting information is of essential importance to monitor the overall health of the control system and cor- respondingly deploy accurate response procedures. Advanced Persistent Threat Detection Traceability Opinion Dynamics.Universidad de Málaga. Campus de Excelencia Internacional Andalucía Tech

    Cooperation and Contagion in Web-Based, Networked Public Goods Experiments

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    A longstanding idea in the literature on human cooperation is that cooperation should be reinforced when conditional cooperators are more likely to interact. In the context of social networks, this idea implies that cooperation should fare better in highly clustered networks such as cliques than in networks with low clustering such as random networks. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a series of web-based experiments, in which 24 individuals played a local public goods game arranged on one of five network topologies that varied between disconnected cliques and a random regular graph. In contrast with previous theoretical work, we found that network topology had no significant effect on average contributions. This result implies either that individuals are not conditional cooperators, or else that cooperation does not benefit from positive reinforcement between connected neighbors. We then tested both of these possibilities in two subsequent series of experiments in which artificial seed players were introduced, making either full or zero contributions. First, we found that although players did generally behave like conditional cooperators, they were as likely to decrease their contributions in response to low contributing neighbors as they were to increase their contributions in response to high contributing neighbors. Second, we found that positive effects of cooperation were contagious only to direct neighbors in the network. In total we report on 113 human subjects experiments, highlighting the speed, flexibility, and cost-effectiveness of web-based experiments over those conducted in physical labs

    Community Aliveness: Discovering Interaction Decay Patterns in Online Social Communities

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    Online Social Communities (OSCs) provide a medium for connecting people, sharing news, eliciting information, and finding jobs, among others. The dynamics of the interaction among the members of OSCs is not always growth dynamics. Instead, a decay\textit{decay} or inactivity\textit{inactivity} dynamics often happens, which makes an OSC obsolete. Understanding the behavior and the characteristics of the members of an inactive community help to sustain the growth dynamics of these communities and, possibly, prevents them from being out of service. In this work, we provide two prediction models for predicting the interaction decay of community members, namely: a Simple Threshold Model (STM) and a supervised machine learning classification framework. We conducted evaluation experiments for our prediction models supported by a ground truth\textit{ground truth} of decayed communities extracted from the StackExchange platform. The results of the experiments revealed that it is possible, with satisfactory prediction performance in terms of the F1-score and the accuracy, to predict the decay of the activity of the members of these communities using network-based attributes and network-exogenous attributes of the members. The upper bound of the prediction performance of the methods we used is 0.910.91 and 0.830.83 for the F1-score and the accuracy, respectively. These results indicate that network-based attributes are correlated with the activity of the members and that we can find decay patterns in terms of these attributes. The results also showed that the structure of the decayed communities can be used to support the alive communities by discovering inactive members.Comment: pre-print for the 4th European Network Intelligence Conference - 11-12 September 2017 Duisburg, German

    Mining and Analyzing the Italian Parliament: Party Structure and Evolution

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    The roll calls of the Italian Parliament in the XVI legislature are studied by employing multidimensional scaling, hierarchical clustering, and network analysis. In order to detect changes in voting behavior, the roll calls have been divided in seven periods of six months each. All the methods employed pointed out an increasing fragmentation of the political parties endorsing the previous government that culminated in its downfall. By using the concept of modularity at different resolution levels, we identify the community structure of Parliament and its evolution in each of the considered time periods. The analysis performed revealed as a valuable tool in detecting trends and drifts of Parliamentarians. It showed its effectiveness at identifying political parties and at providing insights on the temporal evolution of groups and their cohesiveness, without having at disposal any knowledge about political membership of Representatives.Comment: 27 pages, 14 figure
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